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Endnotes

Chapter 1 Introduction

[1] The Letters Patent are set out at Appendix 1: Letters Patent.

[2] Associate Professor Owen, University of Tasmania, Transcript 2676; RCN.900.100.0031.

[3] Photograph taken by staff of the Office of the Royal Commission, Kangaroo Island 4 March 2020.

[4] Royal Commissions have broad powers to gather information to assist with their inquiries: for example, the power to summons witnesses, and to require individuals and organisations to provide documents, and provide information.

[5] The Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre has catalogued these and other related inquiries and reviews, and categorised their recommendations. A list of past inquiries, drawn from the Centre’s database, is set out in Background paper: Australian Inquiries and Reports Concerning Natural Disasters <https://naturaldisaster.royalcommission.gov.au/publications/background-paper-australian-inquiries-and-reports-concerning-natural-disasters>.

Chapter 2 Natural disaster risk

[6] Dr Braganza, Bureau of Meteorology, Transcript 7; BOM.502.001.0001.

[7] Bureau of Meteorology, Monthly Weather Review – Australia March 2020
<http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/mwr/aus/mwr-aus-202003.pdf&gt;

[8] Bureau of Meteorology, Monthly Weather Review – Australia April 2020
<http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/mwr/aus/mwr-aus-202004.pdf&gt;

[9] Bureau of Meteorology, Monthly Weather Review – Australia May 2020
<http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/mwr/aus/mwr-aus-202005.pdf&gt;

[10] Bureau of Meteorology, Monthly Weather Review – Australia June 2020
<http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/mwr/aus/mwr-aus-202006.pdf&gt;

[11] Bureau of Meteorology, Monthly Weather Review – Australia July 2020
<http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/mwr/aus/mwr-aus-202007.pdf&gt;

[12] Bureau of Meteorology, Monthly Weather Review – Australia August 2020
<http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/mwr/aus/mwr-aus-202008.pdf&gt;

[13] Dr Buckley, Insurance Australia Group, Transcript 2879.

[14] Ms Carson, Geoscience Australia, Transcript 41.

[15] https://www.ga.gov.au/scientific-topics/community-safety/earthquake; a magnitude 6.5 earthquake at Meckering in 1968 caused extensive damage to buildings and was felt over most of southern Western Australia. Earthquakes of magnitude 4.0 or more are relatively common in Western Australia, with one occurring approximately every five years in the Meckering region.

[17] Dr Cleugh, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Transcript 31.

[18] Dr Braganza, Bureau of Meteorology, Transcript 10.

[19] Dr Braganza, Bureau of Meteorology, Transcript 14.

[20] BOM.501.001.0001.

[21] Figure from presentation of Dr Karl Braganza, Bureau of Meteorology, BOM.502.001.0001; Mean temperature anomalies averaged over Australia (as calculated from the 1961-1990 average). The black lines shows the 11-year moving average.

[22] Dr Cleugh, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Transcript 32

[23] BOM.502.001.0001.

[24] BOM.503.001.0017.

[25] BOM.502.001.0001.

[26] BOM.502.001.0001.

[27] BOM.502.001.0001.

[28] Dr Braganza, Bureau of Meteorology, Transcript 18.

[29] Giovanni Di Virgilio et al, ‘Climate Change Increased the Potential for Extreme Wildfires’ (2019) 46(14) Geophysical Research Letters.

[30] Graph produced using Table S3 (Register of Australian pyroCb events) contained in ‘Supporting Information’ from Giovanni Di Virgilio et al, ‘Climate Change Increased the Potential for Extreme Wildfires’ (2019) 46(14) Geophysical Research Letters.

[31] Professor Jason Sharples, UNSW Canberra, Transcript 2390-2392; NND.001.00945.01_0001.

[32] Professor Bradstock, University of Wollongong, Transcript 626; Professor Bowman, Transcript 627.

[33] Professor Bowman, University of Tasmania, Transcript 267

[34] RCN.900.125.0305.

[35] RCN.900.125.0305.

[36] Figure from the Climate Measurement Standards Initiative, RCN.900.125.0305; ‘Confidence’ in a climate projection is a measure of how plausible the projected range of change is for a given emission scenario.

[37] RCN.900.125.0305; Dr Cleugh, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Transcript 28.

[38] BOM.503.001.0017.

[39] BOM.501.001.0001.

[40] Dr Grose, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Transcript 2857.

[41] Dr Grose, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Transcript 2857.

[42] Figure from M. R. Grose, Narsey S, Delage F P, Dowdy A J, Bador M, Boschat G et al, ‘Insights From CMIP6 for Australia’s Future Climate’, AGU Advancing Earth and Space Science, RCN.900.135.0001.

[43] Dr Grose, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Transcript 2856.

[44] Dr Grose, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Transcript 2866.

[45] BOM.501.001.0001.

[46] Dr Braganza, Bureau of Meteorology, Transcript 18.

[47] Dr Cleugh, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Transcript 35.

[48] Dr Grose, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Transcript 2866

[49] Dr Grose, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Transcript 2866.

[50] BOM.501.001.0001; CSI.505.001.0001; Dr Cleugh, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Transcript 35.

[51] CSI.505.001.0001.

[52] BOM.501.001.0001.

[53] CSI.505.001.0001.

[54] Insurance Australia Group, IAG.500.001.0001.

[55] Insurance Australia Group, IAG.500.001.0001.

[56] BOM.503.001.0017.

[57] BOM.503.001.0017.

[58]Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO, ‘Climate Change in Australia’; CSIRO, Department of the Environment and Climate Change in Australia, Climate Change in Australia, Regional Report - Chapter Seven, Projections: Atmosphere and the Land.

[59] Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, CSI.502.001.0046.

[60] BOM.501.001.0001; CSI.502.001.0046.

[61] CSI.502.001.0046.

[62] BOM.501.001.0001.

[63] Ms Carson, Geoscience Australia, Transcript 41.

[64] Allen, T., Leonard, M., Ghasemi, H., Gibson, G. 2018. The 2018 National Seismic Hazard Assessment for Australia: Earthquake Epicentre Catalogue. Record 2018/030. Geoscience Australia, Canberra.

[65] Dr Crompton, Risk Frontiers, Transcript 64.

[66] BOM.501.001.0001.

[67] BOM.501.001.0001.

[68]CSI.502.001.0046; BOM.501.001.0001.

[69] BOM.501.001.0001.

[70] BOM.501.001.0001.

[71] IAG.500.001.0001.

[72] BOM.501.001.0001.

[73] BOM.502.001.0001.

[74] BOM.501.001.0001.

[75] Figure from Dowdy et al (2019), as cited in CSI.505.001.0001. Results are presented as the percentage change from the time period 1990-2009 to 2060-2079. FFDI calculation exceeds a value of 25 which represents conditions classed as ‘very high’ in operational fire danger forecasts. Predictions include greenhouse gas as a ‘high emission’ scenario.

[76] BOM.503.001.0001; CSI.505.001.0001.

[77] IAG.500.001.0001.

[78] IAG.500.001.0001.

[79] BOM.501.001.0001.

[80] CSI.502.001.0046.

[81] BOM.503.001.0001; CSI.505.001.0001.

[82] BOM.503.001.0001; BOM.501.001.0001. ‘there were there were multiple pyrocumulonimbus events, particularly on the south coast of NSW and into Gippsland, Victoria’: Professor Bradstock, University of Wollongong, Transcript 626.

[83] BOM.501.001.0001.

[84] BOM.503.001.0001.

[85] Figure from presentation of Dr Karl Braganza, Bureau of Meteorology, BOM.502.001.0001.

[86] Mami Mizutori, ‘Time to Say Goodbye to “Natural” Disasters’ (16 July 2020) <https://www.preventionweb.net/experts/oped/view/72768&gt;.

[87] HAF.8001.0001.0049.

[88] HAF.8001.0001.0049.

[89] Figure based on the three aspects of disaster risk, as outlined in the Sendai Framework (DMC.001.001.0921); Figure adapted from a similar depiction of disaster risk produced by Professor Holger Maier, Mr Graeme Riddell and Adjunct Associate Professor Hedwig van Delden <see: https://theconversation.com/natural-hazard-risk-is-it-just-going-to-get…;

[90] HAF.8001.0001.0049.

[91] RYC.500.001.0001.

[92] NND.001.01013.06; This was a 10-year average and reflected total economic cost at a point in time. It does not capture the variability in disaster costs from year-to-year which could be well above or well below this historical average. Similarly, it presents historical data on economic cost rather than an estimate of risk that Australia may be exposed to for various disaster types.

[93] Graph producing using data sourced from the Insurance Council of Australia’s ICA Catastrophe Database, ICA DataGlobe. Accessed 5 October 2020. <https://www.icadataglobe.com/metadata-search&gt;

[94] RCN.900.127.0068.

[95] CSI.508.001.0027.

[96] NND.001.01013.06.

[97] Figure from A Gissing, M Timms, S Browning, L Coates, R Crompton, J McAneney, ‘Compound Natural Disasters in Australia: A Historical Analysis’, Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, RCN.900.122.0001.

[98] Figure from A Gissing, M Timms, S Browning, L Coates, R Crompton, J McAneney, ‘Compound Natural Disasters in Australia: A Historical Analysis’, Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, RCN.900.122.0001; Years along the x-axis refer to financial years. Long-term stressors included.

[99] RCN.900.122.0001.

[100] See, eg Associate Professor Tolhurst, University of Melbourne, Transcript 639; Professor Bradstock, University of Wollongong, Transcript 644; Mr De Haan, Transcript 736.

[101] NND.001.01368.01.

[102] GEO.502.001.0002.

[103] HAF.8001.0001.0049

[104] RCN.900.112.041.

[105] RCN.900.112.041.

[106] RCN.900.005.0449.

[107] RCN.900.148.0001.

[108] Bushfire & Natural Hazards CRC, ‘Australian Disaster Resilience Index: Building Safer, Adaptable Communities’ (2020) <https://adri.bnhcrc.com.au/#!/maps>

Chapter 3 National coordination arrangements

[109] The Commonwealth Constitution confirms the territorial boundaries of the States, and preserves the States as self-governing polities with extensive legislative, executive and judicial authority.

[110] HAF.8001.0001.0049.

[111] RCN.900.034.0092.

[112] RCN.900.117.0001.

[113] RCN.900.034.0001. Some states and territories have preparedness frameworks, reports, guidelines or preseason briefs. See CLQ.001.001.0266, SWA.004.001.0008, TPF.500.001.0039, EMV.0003.0003.0217 and ESA.500.001.0002.

[114] SWA.502.001.0133.

[115] HAF.0003.0001.0639.

[116] The Royal Commission has heard that the NSW Premier and Emergency Services Minister receive briefings from the NSW State Emergency Management Committee: see NSW.005.002.0001; Shane Fitzsimmons AFSM, Resilience NSW, Transcript 2542-2543.

[117] The Northern Territory does not have a strategic policy and/or operational level decision making committee, all decisions are made at the ministerial level. Queensland’s Emergency Management Committee is chaired by the Premier. Queensland is unique in comparison to the other jurisdictions because this committee, chaired by the Premier, is not only comprised of ministers but also members responsible for policy and operations including the Emergency Services Chiefs.

[118] PMC.505.001.0002.

[119] HAF.0003.0001.0519.

[120] HAF.0003.0001.0519.

[121] HAF.0003.0001.0478.

[122] HAF.8001.0001.0180.

[123] WAH.001.001.0009.

[124] RCN.900.140.0001.

[125] RCN.900.144.0972; RCN.900.144.0862

[126] HAF.0003.0001.0639

[127] For the purposes of NATCATDISPLAN, the term ‘State’ includes the Northern Territory, ACT, Island and Offshore Territories.

[128] HAF.0003.0001.0478.

[129] HAF.8001.0001.0180.

[130] Clauses 3 and 8 of NATCATDISPLAN respectively includes among the circumstances and events defining a catastrophic natural disaster to be when the ‘affected Executive Government is temporarily incapacitated’.

[131] Professor Cheryl Saunders, University of Melbourne, Transcript 2706-2709.

[132] Meeting of the Council of Australian Governments Sydney 13 March 2020 Communique, PMC.0001.0002.0446.

[133] Prime Minister of Australia, Press Conference 29 May 2020 <https://www.pm.gov.au/media/press-conference-australian-parliament-hous…;. See also Mr Philip Gaetjens, Secretary, Commonwealth Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, Transcript 2752.

[134] Council of Australian Governments, ‘COAG Councils’ <https://www.coag.gov.au/coag-councils&gt;

[135] The Ministerial Council for Police and Emergency Management (MCPEM) sits once a year to consider a broad range of issues associated with law enforcement reform and emergency management. MCPEM is comprised of Ministers for police and emergency management from the Australian Government, states and territories and New Zealand, and the President of the Australian Local Government Association (ALGA).

[136] Department of Home Affairs, ‘Australia-New Zealand Emergency Management Committee’ <https://www.homeaffairs.gov.au/help-and-support/how-to-engage-us/commit…;

[137] HAF.0005.0006.0011.

[138] HAF.0003.0001.0519.

[139] HAF.0003.0001.0519.

[140] HAF.0003.0002.0004.

[141] HAF.0003.0001.0519.

[142] HAF.0003.0002.0004.

[143] HAF.8001.0001.0001, 12; HAF.8001.0001.0171

[144] HAF.0003.0002.0001.

[145] HAF.8001.0001.0001.

[146] HAF.507.001.0001.

[147] Mr McTavish, NSW Cross Border Commissioner, Transcript 1201.

[148] PMC.505.001.0002. Version 2.3, published on 9 October 2020, replaced version 2.2, and reflects updated administrative arrangements following ‘the establishment of new ministerial portfolios focused on natural disasters and emergency management and revised Defence Assistance to the Civil Community (DACC) arrangements’, as well as to reflect the ‘retirement of the Council of Australian Governments arrangements and associated structures’. It also notes that a ‘redraft of the arrangements is planned for 2021, following the Government’s response to the findings and recommendations’ of this Royal Commission.

[149] PMC.505.001.0002. In Figure 2, ‘AGDRC’ refers to the Australian Government Disaster Recovery Committee. ‘IDETF’ refers to Inter-Departmental Emergency Taskforce, which manages the whole-of-government response to overseas incidents or crises that harm or threaten to harm, Australians or Australia’s interest overseas.

[150] HAF.8001.0001.0001.

[151] HAF.8001.0001.0180.

[152] NND.001.00824.01.

[153] NND.001.00824.01.

[154] Australian Maritime Safety Authority, the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and Geoscience Australia: NND.001.00824.01. BOM is also an official observer at CCOSC meetings: AFC.502.001.0049.

[155] RCN.900.009.0009.

[156] AFC.511.001.0813.

[157] AFC.502.001.0141.

[158] AFC.502.001.0049.

[159] RCN.900.082.0001.

[160] HAF.0003.0001.0494. See also AFC.509.001.0001.

[161] Mr Spain, Northern Territory Fire and Rescue Service, Transcript, 2436; Mr Ellis, AFAC, Transcript 292, 305, 322.

[162] AFC.512.001.0001 – Mr Ellis AM, Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council. See also Commissioner Fitzsimmons, Resilience NSW, Transcript 2550.

[163] Mr Cameron OAM, Director-General, EMA, Transcript 430, 2629.

[164] AFC.512.001.0001.

[165] HAF.0003.0001.0519.

[166] NND.001.00824.01.

[167] Bilateral or cross-border resource sharing is arranged outside of the CCOSC and the NRSC.

[168] AFC.505.001.0716.

[169] HAF.0005.0007.0360; AFC.512.001.0001.

[170] HAF.0003.0001.0494; NND.001.00824.01.

[171] HAF.0005.0004.0053.

[172] HAF.0003.0001.0504; HAF.0003.0001.0494.

[173] NND.001.00824.01; HAF.0003.0002.0047; HAF.0003.0002.0055; AFC.502.001.0836; AFC.502.001.0647.

[174] HAF.0003.0001.0494.

[175] AFC.511.001.0019.

[176] AFC.511.001.0019.

[177] AFC.502.001.1641; AFC.511.001.0452.

[178] NND.001.00824.01; AFC.502.001.0101

[179] AFC.503.001.0003.

[180] NND.001.00824.01.

[181] AFC.502.001.0194.

[182] AFC.502.001.0049.

[183] AFC.505.001.0145; AFC.505.001.0147.

[184] Mr Mullins, Former Commissioner, Fire and Rescue NSW, Transcript 1500.

[185] NND.001.00824.01.

[186] NND.001.00824.01.

[187] NND.001.00824.01.

[188] NND.001.00824.01.

[189] AFC.506.001.0496.

[190] See eg Mr Spain, Northern Territory Fire and Rescue Service, Transcript 2439–2440.

[191] Commissioner Baxter, Fire and Rescue NSW, Transcript 2614; Mr Ellis AM, Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council, Transcript 301–302; An example of the CCOSC Summary Report as at Tuesday 21 October 2020 is AFC.504.001.0001.

[192] QFS.501.001.0001; NND.800.200.00055; Commissioner Whelan, ACT Emergency Services Agency, Transcript 2026; HAF.0005.0007.0006.

[193] In 2017, the Council of Australian Governments decided to replace the Law, Crime and Community Safety Council with separate councils for Ministers for Police and Emergency Management and Attorney-Generals. The Ministerial Council for Police and Emergency Management and Council of Attorney-Generals were subsequently established. (<https://www.homeaffairs.gov.au/help-and-support/how-to-engage-us/commit…;)

[194] As at October 2013, EMA was part of the Attorney-General’s Department.

[195] AFC.511.001.0850.

[196] AFC.502.001.0049.

[197] AFC.511.001.0019; and Mr Ellis AM, Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council, Transcript 311.

[198] AFC.508.001.0037.

[199] QFS.002.001.0039; SAF.203.004.0017; RFS.001.001.0001; QFS.002.001.0039.

[200] NSW.006.001.0001.

[201] AFC.508.001.0016.

[202] AFC.502.001.0006.

[203] Mr Richard Adler, Transcript 325.

[204] AFC.500.001.0001.

[205] AFC.502.001.1566.

[206] HAF.9001.0001.0014

[207] AFC.502.001.0006.

[208] AFC.511.001.0011.

[209] Commissioner Arnol, Tasmanian Department of Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript 2082.

[210] HAF.8003.0001.0001.

[211] NND.001.00824.01.

[212] Commissioner Whelan, ACT Emergency Services Agency, Transcript 2493–2494.

[213] AFC.510.001.0001.

[214] HAF.0005.0002.0008.

[215] HAF.0005.0007.0360; NND.800.200.00053.

[216] Commissioner Fitzsimmons, Resilience NSW, Transcript 2012; Commissioner Rogers, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 2012; Acting Commissioner Waters, Western Australian Department of Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript 2459.

[217] HAF.0005.0007.0360; NND.800.200.00053.

[218] Compound disasters could comprise: two or more extreme disaster events occurring simultaneously or successively; combination of extreme events with underlying conditions that amplify their impact; or combination of events that are not themselves extreme but which collectively lead to an extreme impact: RCN.900.122.0032.

[219] AFC.512.001.0001.

[220] Mr Cameron OAM, EMA, Transcript 428.

[221] Commissioner Whelan, ACT Emergency Services Agency, Transcript 2497.

[222] Mr Cameron OAM, EMA, Transcript 429.

[223] HAF.0003.0001.0519.

[224] Mr Klemm, Western Australian Department of Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript 2171.

[225] AFC.508.001.0016.

[226] Mr Klemm, Western Australian Department of Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript 2171.

[227] VIC.900.001.0001.

[228] HAF.8001.0001.0001.

[229] Commissioner Baxter, Fire and Rescue NSW, Transcript 2609.

[230] AFC.510.001.0001.

[231] AFC.510.001.0001. Mr Stuart Ellis AM, the CEO of AFAC, provided a statement to us setting out the accountability arrangements for AFAC, CCOSC, NRSC and NAFC: AFC.512.001.0001.

[232] CJN.002.001.0038.

[233] AFC.512.001.0001.

[234] Commissioner Arnol, Tasmanian Department of Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript 2485; SAG.515.001.0009; SAG.515.001.0001; SAG.515.001.0006; Commissioner Crisp, Emergency Management Victoria, Transcript 2517.

[235] Commissioner Baxter, Fire and Rescue NSW, Transcript 2569. Commissioner Whelan, ACT Emergency Services Agency, Transcript 2493.

[236] HAF.8003.0001.0001. See similarly Commissioner Whelan, ACT Emergency Services Agency, Transcript 2491, 2496; Commissioner Crisp, Emergency Management Victoria, Transcript 2518–2519.

[237] AFC.511.001.0019.

[238] AFC.512.001.0001.

[239] AFC.512.001.0001.

[240] AFC.512.001.0001.

[241] NND.001.00824.01.

[242] FRN.002.001.0001.

[243] FRN.002.001.0001.

[244] NSW.006.001.0001 – NSW Government, Final Report of the NSW Bushfire Inquiry, (31 July 2020).

[245] RCN.900.138.0001 – Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, ‘2019-20 Major Incidents Report’.

[246] Mr Stark, South Australian Country Fire Service, Transcript 2125, 2236, 2491.

[247] For further detail about health impacts of natural disasters refer to Chapter 15: Health.

[248] Commonwealth, Royal Commission on Australian Government Administration, Report (1976).

[249] Mr Darby, former Director-General, EMA, Transcript 2700.

[250] Mr Jennings, Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Transcript 2899–2900.

[251] NND.300.005.0003.

[252] Professor Cheryl Saunders, University of Melbourne, Transcript 2706-2713 and RCN.900.083.0001; Professor Murphy, Commonwealth Department of Health, Transcript 2595–2596; Commissioner Halton, National COVID-19 Coordination Commission Advisory Board, Transcript 2603; Mr Michael Pezullo AO, Secretary, Department of Home Affairs, Transcript 2720; Mr Philip Gaetjens, Secretary, Commonwealth Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, Transcript 2746-2749.

[253] Professor Murphy, Commonwealth Department of Health, Transcript 2595–2596; Mr Philip Gaetjens, Commonwealth Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, Transcript 2747-2748.

[254] Commissioner Halton PSM, National COVID-19 Coordination Commission Advisory Board, Transcript 2603.

[255] Commonwealth Department of Health, ‘Australian Health Protection Principal Committee’ <https://www.health.gov.au/committees-and-groups/australian-health-prote…;.

[256] Professor Murphy, Commonwealth Department of Health, Transcript 2595.

[257] Dr Finkel, Australia’s Chief Scientist, Transcript 2312; Professor Saunders, the University of Melbourne, Transcript 2707.

[258] Mr Pezzullo AO, Commonwealth Department of Home Affairs, Transcript 2736.

[259] CTH.900.001.0001.

[260] HEA.9001.0002.0001; Mr Philip Gaetjens, Commonwealth Department of Prime Minister & Cabinet, Transcript 2747-2749.

[261] CTH,900.001.0001; NSW.900.001.0003; CLQ.003.001.0001; VIC.900.001.0001; SWA.007.001.0002.

[262] PMC.8002.0001.0001; see also Mr Philip Gaetjens, Commonwealth Department of Prime Minister & Cabinet, Transcript 2747-2749.

[263] HAF.8001.0001.0049; HAF.8001.0001.0001.

[264] Prime Minister of Australia, (Press Conference, 4 September 2020) <https://www.Pm.Gov.Au/Media/Press-Conference-Australian-Parliament-Hous…;.

[265] RCN.900.034.0092.

[266] HAF.8001.0001.0049.

[267] HAF.8003.0001.0001.

[268] PMC.8002.0001.0001.

[269] PMC.8002.0001.0001

[270] Mr Mark Crossweller, former Director-General, EMA, Transcript 2698.

[271] Mr Mark Crossweller, former Director-General, EMA Transcript 2698.

[272] PMC.505.001.0002.

[273] PMC.8002.0001.0001.

[274] HAF.8001.0001.0001 2-4.

[275] Mr Cameron OAM, Transcript 2632.

[276] HAF.8001.0001.0001, 13-14.

[277] Mr Gaetjens, Commonwealth Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Transcript 2933.

[278] AFC.512.001.0001.

[279] NTT.900.001.0003; NSW.900.001.0003; SSA.900.001.0003; SWA.007.001.0002; TAS.900.001.0003.

[280] NSW.900.001.0003; SWA.007.001.0002; TAS.900.001.0003; NTT.900.001.0003.

[281] NSW.500.001.0001.

[282] VIC.900.001.0001.

[283] Mr Pezzullo AO, Department of Home Affairs, Transcript 2727.

[284] Mr Pezzullo AO, Department of Home Affairs, Transcript 2740.

[285] Mr Pezzullo AO, Commonwealth Department of Home Affairs, Transcript 2727.

[286] Professor Murphy, Commonwealth Department of Health, Transcript 2590.

[287] LGA.500.001.0001; ADC.501.001.0002; ACT.500.001.0001; Ms Prendergast, Resilience NSW, Transcript 1952.

[288] ADC.501.001.0002; SRC.500.001.0001.

[289] ADC.501.001.0002; SRC.500.001.0001.

[290] SSA.468.056.0001; Mr Burkevics, ACT Security and Emergency Management Branch, Transcript 1854; ADC.501.001.0002; SRC.500.001.0001.

[291] PMC.8002.0001.0001.

[292] RCN.001.001.2304 – Productivity Commission, Natural Disaster Funding Arrangements, (Inquiry Report No 74, 17 December 2014) stated: There are other practices that can also reduce waste…the funding arrangements should seek to prevent repeated disaster events causing repeated recovery costs if mitigation, betterment or not rebuilding damaged assets would be more efficient and effective.

[293] NND.300.006.0151.

[294] TAS.900.001.0001; SWA.007.001.0002.

[295] ACT.900.001.0001; TAS.900.001.0001.

[296] SWA.007.001.0002

[297] CLQ.003.001.0001; SSA.900.001.0003; TAS.900.001.0001; VIC.900.001.0001.

[298] CLQ.003.001.0001.

[299] TAS.900.001.0001.

[300] PMC.8002.0001.0001.

[301] Under the Public Governance, Performance Accountability Act 2013, these entities are described as ‘listed entities’, which are a type of non-corporate Commonwealth entity.

[302] Mr Stone, Coordinator General, National Drought and North Queensland Flood Response and Recovery Agency, Transcript 538-539.

[303] Mr Jennings, Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Transcript 2900.

Chapter 4 Supporting better decisions

[304] CTH.901.001.0005.

[305] Department of Home Affairs, Deconstructing Disaster: The strategic case for developing an Australian Vulnerability Profile to enhance national preparedness (2018) <https://knowledge.aidr.org.au/media/6689/avp_nrt_report_deconstructing-disaster_march-2017.pdf>.

[306] HAF.9008.0001.0001.

[307] Figure from Deloitte Access Economics ‘Sendai Data Collection and Analysis’, HAF.9008.0001.0001.

[308] HAF.9008.0001.0001; HAF.0001.0002.0036.

[309] HAF.8001.0001.0049.

[310] HAF.9008.0001.0001.

[311] HAF.8001.0001.0199.

[312] Department of Home Affairs, Deconstructing Disaster: The strategic case for developing an Australian Vulnerability Profile to enhance national preparedness (2018) <https://knowledge.aidr.org.au/media/6689/avp_nrt_report_deconstructing-disaster_march-2017.pdf>.

[313] RCN.900.112.0415.

[314] NND.300.005.0001; NSW.900.001.0003.

[315] NSW.001.001.0040; CLQ.001.001.0071; EMV.0005.0001.0068; SSA.468.021.0001; FES.007.001.0002_0001; NTT.500.001.0060; ACT.500.001.0001; TAS.500.001.0452.

[316] AWE.9003.0001.0018.

[317] A report to the Council of Australian Governments by a high level officials’ group, Natural Disasters in Australia - Reforming Mitigation, Relief and Recovery Arrangements (August 2002).

[318] RCN.001.0001.0489.

[319] EPA.500.001.1491.

[320] RCN.001.001.1920.

[321] BOM.501.001.0001; CSI.500.001.0001; AWE.501.001.0001; NSW.500.001.0001; ENN.500.001.0032; FES.003.001.0003; HAF.9001.0001.0013; NTP.501.001.0026; PTS.501.001.0002; SDQ.001.001.0001; ESA.500.001.0074; QFS.002.001.0012; SAF.500.001.0005; PLH.003.001.0003; EPA.500.001.0002; EMV.0005.0001.0068.

[322] LiDAR stands for Light Detection and Ranging, and is a remote sensing method that can generate precise, three-dimensional information about the shape of the Earth and its surface characteristics using light in the form of a pulsed laser.

[323] NND.001.01141.01; GEO.502.001.0002; PMC.0003.0001.0001; NND.001.01062.02; SHP.500.001.0002; NND.001.01360.02.

[324] Commissioner Georgeina Whelan, ACT Emergency Services Agency, Transcript 750; Mr Julian Lyngcoln, Department of Environment Land, Water and Planning for Victoria, Transcript 1671.

[325] CTH.900.001.0001.

[326] NSW.500.001.0001; ESQ.002.001.0012; EPA.500.001.0002; QFS.002.001.0012; SAS.500.001.0003; EMV.0005.0001.0068; NND.600.00381; NTP.501.001.0026; FES.003.001.0003.

[327] SSA.900.001.0003; SWA.007.001.0002; TAS.900.001.0003.

[328] Dr Dan Metcalfe, Deputy Director CSIRO Land and Water, Transcript 2852.

[329] Dr Dan Metcalfe, Deputy Director CSIRO Land and Water, Transcript 2852.

[330] CTH.902.001.0003.

[331] BNH.500.001.0001; NND.001.00860.01; HAF.501.001.0001; SHP.500.001.0002; CSI.501.001.0001; NSW.500.001.0001.

[332] RCN.900.125.0096.

[333] RCN.900.125.0096.

[334] RCN.900.125.0253.

[335] RCN.900.125.0253.

[336] RCN.900.125.0305.

[337] RCN.900.125.0241.

[338] HAF.0012.0002.0003.

[339] VIC.900.001.0001.

[340] SSA.900.001.0003.

[341] TAS.900.001.0003.

[342] CTH.900.001.0001.

[343] CTH.900.001.0001.

[344] PMC.9003.001.001.

[345] PMC.9003.001.001.

[346] CTH.901.001.0005.

[347] CTH.901.001.0005.

[348] CTH.901.001.0005.

[349] CSI.508.001.0027.

[350] Dr Helen Cleugh, CSIRO, Transcript, 30.

[351] Dr Helen Cleugh, CSIRO, Transcript, 29-30.

[352] CSI.502.001.0092.

[353] CSI.500.001.0001.

[354] BOM.501.001.0001.

[355] Mr Shoni Maguire, Bureau of Meteorology, Transcript 576.

[356] RCN.900.112.0910.

[357] EWS.500.001.003 53; ESQ.002.001.0012; RCN.900.125.0029; PTS.501.001.0002.

[358] RCN.900.112.0281.

[359] RCN.900.125.0029.

[360] RCN.900.125.0029.

[361] RCN.900.125.0029.

[362] RCN.900.125.0029.

[363] RCN.900.112.0817.

[364] CSI.505.001.0001; Dr Helen Cleugh, CSIRO, Transcript 29.

[365] Dr Helen Cleugh, CSIRO, Transcript 30.

[366] CSI.502.001.0092.

[367] Dr Helen Cleugh, CSIRO, Transcript 30.

[368] Dr Michael Grose, CSIRO, Transcript 2855.

[369] Dr Michael Grose, CSIRO, Transcript 2855.

[370] Dr Michael Grose, CSIRO, Transcript 2855.

[371] NSW.900.001.0003; SSA.900.001.0003; AdaptNSW, About NARCliM, <https://climatechange.environment.nsw.gov.au/Climate-projections-for-NSW/About-NARCliM>

[372]VIC.900.001.0001; CLQ.003.001.0001; Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning Victoria, Victorian Climate Projections 2019, <https://www.climatechange.vic.gov.au/adapting-to-climate-change-impacts/victorian-climate-projections-2019>; The Queensland Government, The Long Paddock, Queensland Future Climate: Understanding the data, <https://www.longpaddock.qld.gov.au/qld-future-climate/understand-data/&…;

[373] TAS.900.001.0003; Climate Futures – Climate science for Australia’s future, About, <https://climatefutures.org.au/about/>

[374] SSA.901.001.0047.

[375] HAF.0012.0002.0003.

[376] The Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) was set up and tasked with creating a set of internationally comparable and consistent disclosures that companies can use to demonstrate climate change resilience to their investors. The business community is experiencing pressure from stakeholders, including investors and regulators to disclose these risks. However, meaningful and useful climate risk related information is required to support them. Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures, Final Report: Recommendations of the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures, June 2019, https://www.fsb-tcfd.org/publications/final-recommendations-report/> ; Deloitte, Clarity in financial reporting – Disclosure of climate-related risks, February 2020, <https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/au/Documents/audit/deloitte-au-audit-clarity-disclosure-climate-related-risks-070220.pdf>

[377] RCN.900.112.0918; RCN.900.112.0092.

[378] RCN.900.112.0633; RCN.900.112.0092.

[379] See, eg the Climate Explorer in the U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit uses a slider across a map of the USA

to view present-day and future scenarios for a range of user-appropriate climate variables: https://crt-climate-explorer.nemac.org/.

[380] LEP.500.001.0013.

[381] NSW.500.001.0001; ENN.500.001.0032; EWS.500.001.0003; EPA.500.001.0002; EMV.0005.0001.0068.

[382] CSI.501.001.0001.

[383] CSI.501.001.0001.

[384] GEO.502.001.0002.

[385] HAF.0012.0002.0003.

[386] HAF.0012.0002.0003.

[387] GEO. 502.001.0002.

[388] EWS.500.001.0003.

[389] HAF.8001.0001.0049.

[390] HAF.8001.0001.0338.

[391] RCN.900.112.0415.

[392] GEO.502.001.0002.

[393] RCN.900.112.0415.

[394] SHP.500.001.0002.

[395] GEO.502.001.0002.

[396] EMV.0014.0001.0345.

[397] HAF.0012.0002.0003.

[398] RCN.900.088.0001.

[399] RCN.900.088.0001.

[400]AID.500.001.0001.

[401] Mr Darragh, Northern Territory Department of the Chief Minister, Transcript 1814; NND.800.001.00021; VIC.0009.0001.0001; NND.800.200.00020.

[402] Bushfire History Project contribution, Gavan Willis, Tumbarumba NSW, 5 January 2020

[403] FEC.360.001.0001.

[404] VIC.0009.0001.0001.

[405] SSA.468.056.0001.

[406] See Appendix 14: 2019‑2020 Bushfire Season

[407] TAS.500.001.0452.

[408] FES.007.001.0002.

[409] ACT.500.001.0001; FES.007.001.0002; SSA.468.056.0001; NND.800.001.00043.

[410] ESE.002.001.0001; AGR.501.001.0001; ESE.001.001.1429.

[411] NND.300.005.0035.

[412] Mr Andrew Colvin APM OAM, National Bushfire Recovery Agency, Transcript, 514–15; PMC.8001.0001.0297.

[413] FES.007.001.0002; ACT.500.001.0001; NTT.500.001.0060; EMV.0015.0001.0001.

[414] HAF.0010.0001.0001.

[415] HAF.0010.0001.0001.

[416] HAF.0010.0001.0093; RCN.900.139.0001.

[417] RCN.900.139.0001.

[418] CLQ.001.001.0650.

[419] NSW.009.002.0027.

[420] SWA.006.001.0001.

[421] NSW.009.002.0027; ESA.508.001.0008; VIC.0011.0001.0001.

[422] TAS.507.001.0403.

[423] CLQ.001.001.0650.

[424] PMC.8001.0001.0297.

[425] PMC.9005.0001.0001.

[426] NTT.500.001.0060; VIC.0011.0001.0001; NSW.009.002.0027; NTT.509.001.0033.

[427] NSW.009.002.0027.

[428] Mr Andrew Colvin APM OAM, National Bushfire Recovery Agency, Transcript 515.

[429] SSA.468.056.0001.

[430] Mr Len Darragh, Northern Territory Department of the Chief Minister, Transcript, 1814.

[431] VIC.0011.0001.0001.

[432] VIC.0011.0001.0001.

[433] SSA.632.001.0006.

[434] SSA.468.056.0001.

[435] NSW.001.001.0001.

[436] VIC.0009.0001.0001.

[437] SSA.468.056.0001; NSW.001.001.0001; NTT.500.001.0060.

[438] FES.007.001.0002; EMV.0015.0001.0001.

[439] NSW.001.001.0001; SSA.468.056.0001.

Chapter 5 Declaration of national emergency

[440] CTH.902.001.0001.

[441] CTH.902.001.0003.

[442] CTH.900.001.0002.

[443] PMC.505.001.0002.

[444] This plan is also discussed in Chapter 3: National coordination arrangements.

[445] HAF.0003.0001.0478. NATCATDISPLAN – refer to clauses 3 and 8.

[446] HAF.0003.0001.0478. Refer to clause 13.

[447] PMC.8003.0001.0001; PMC.8003.0001.0003.

[448] HAF.8001.0001.0180.

[449] Biosecurity Act 2015 (Cth).

[450] Biosecurity (Human Biosecurity Emergency) (Human Coronavirus with Pandemic Potential) Declaration 2020, made on 18 March 2020 and most recently varied on 11 September 2020, <https://www.legislation.gov.au/Series/F2020L00266>; Professor Murphy, Commonwealth Department of Health, Transcript 2590.

[451] CJN.003.001.0001.

[452] EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[453] HAF.9006.0001.0001.

[454] PMC.8002.0001.0001.

[455] Emergency Management Act 1986 (Vic), s 24.

[456] The Constitution does not provide for the ACT or the Northern Territory to refer powers to the Commonwealth Parliament. However, under s 122 of the Constitution, the Commonwealth Parliament has significant powers in relation to the territories.

[457] CTH.900.001.0002.

[458] CTH.902.001.0003.

[459] New South Wales v Commonwealth (2006) 229 CLR 1, para 51.

[460] An unintended gap could be addressed by a referral of power from states, followed by any consequential legislative action to give effect to that referral.

[461] The ‘incidental power’ allows the Commonwealth to introduce laws that give practical effect to each of its powers.

[462] This principle protects the continued existence of the states as independent entities with legislative, executive and judicial functions, and the capacity of the states to function as governments.

[463] CTH.900.001.0001.

[464] CJN.003.001.0001.

[465] EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[466] EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[467] RCN.900.067.0002.

[468] RCN.900.067.0003.

[469] RCN.900.067.0001.

[470] EMV.0002.0001.0007.

[471] EMV.0002.0001.0029.

[472] EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[473] EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[474] ESA.507.001.0003; ACT.504.001.0006.

[475] RCN.900.156.0001.

[476] EMC.500.001.0002.

[477] SAP.310.001.0013.

[478] CLQ.002.001.0007.

[479] HAF.9006.0001.0001.

Chapter 6 National emergency response capability

[480] Australian Disaster Preparedness Framework October 2018 defines capability as the collective ability and power to deliver and sustain an effect within a specific context and timeframe. Capacity as the key determinant of how long a capability can be sustained for at a particular level of ability. The level of capability is determined by the combination of ability and capacity across the following core elements. RCN.900.034.0001—Australia-New Zealand Emergency Management Committee, Australian Disaster Preparedness Framework: A Guideline to Develop the Capabilities Required to Manage Severe to Catastrophic Disasters (October 2018), 8.

[481] Adapted from definition of emergency response definition AFAC glossary.

[482] Mr Cameron, Emergency Management Australia, Transcript, 2416; RCN.500.001.2615; HAF.0005.0002.0008.

[483] BOM.502.001.0001.

[484] Dr Braganza, Bureau of Meteorology, Transcript, 11–15; Associate Professor Fletcher, University of Melbourne, Transcript, 802; Mr Pezzullo, Commonwealth Department of Home Affairs, Transcript, 2740; Commissioner Fitzsimmons, Resilience NSW, Transcript, 1970.

[485] FEC.360.001.0001 – Keelty et al., Independent Review into South Australia’s 2019-20 Bushfire Season (2020); NSW.006.001.0001 – NSW Government, Final Report of the NSW Bushfire Inquiry (2020); VIC.0009.0001.0001 – Victorian Inspector-General for Emergency Management, Inquiry into the 2019-20 Victorian Fire Season, Phase 1: Community and Sector Preparedness for and Response to the 2019-20 Fire Season (2020).

[486] AFC.503.001.0003; FEC.360.001.0001; NSW.006.001.0001; VIC.0009.0001.0001.

[487] AFC.503.001.0003.

[488] FEC.360.001.0001; NSW.006.001.0001; VIC.0009.0001.0001.

[489] FEC.360.001.0001; NSW.006.001.0001; EMQ.001.001.0711.

[490] Commissioner Klemm, Western Australian Department of Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript, 2180; Mr Stalker, Samford Rural Fire Brigade - Queensland, Transcript, 1452; Mr Baldock, Darlington Volunteer Bush Fire Brigade - Western Australia, Transcript, 1456; AFC.503.001.0003.

[491] Table includes firefighters, aerial specialists and Incident Management Team personnel from Australian states and territories, New Zealand, the United States, and Canada. Data for domestic deployments from SSA.632.001.0006; CLQ.001.001.0650; VIC.0011.0001.0001; TAS.507.001.0403; SWA.006.001.0001; ESA.508.001.0008; NTT.509.001.0033; NSW.009.002.0001. For international deployments from AFC.503.001.0003.

[492] VIC.0009.0001.0001).

[493] Mr Mullins, Former Commissioner, Fire and Rescue NSW, Transcript, 1502.

[494] Image from Bushfire History Project contribution anonymous, NSW.

[495] Adapted from the elements of capability in RCN.900.034.0001.

[496] AFC.503.001.0003.

[497] Mr Barnett, Volunteer Fire Brigades Victoria, Transcript, 1420; ESA.502.001.0117, 502; MFS.204.004.0016; AFC.503.001.0003.

[498] Adapted from the elements of capability, RCN.900.034.0001.

[499] Mr Jennings, Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Transcript, 2895.

[500] VIC.0011.0001.0001; CLQ.001.001.0650; SSA.632.001.0006; TAS.507.001.0403; NTT.509.001.0033; ESA.508.001.0008; NSW.009.002.0001.

[501] RYC.500.001.0001; Mr Jennings, Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Transcript, 2895.

[502] eg 2019‑2020 QFES pre-season preparedness checks assessed the level of incident management capacity in each of the regions and resources were moved around the state accordingly. CLQ.001.001.0650.

[503] RYC.500.001.0001; Mr Jennings, Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Transcript, 2895.

[504] NSW.009.002.0001.

[505] ESA.508.001.0001.

[506] VIC.0011.0001.0001.

[507] eg slow uptake of Automatic Vehicle Location technology see FEC.360.001.0001.

[508] Mr Barnett, Volunteer Fire Brigades Victoria, Transcript, 1417–18; NND.800.001.00096.

[509] VIC.0011.0001.0001; AFC.502.001.0912.

[510] NSW.006.001.0001.

[511] NND.001.00906.

[512] AFC.502.001.0912.

[513] AFC.512.001.0001; AFC.502.001.0912.

[514] AFC.512.001.0001.

[515] AFC.502.001.0912.

[516] AFC.512.001.0001.

[517] Commissioner Whelan, ACT Emergency Services Agency, Transcript, 2029.

[518] FES.003.001.0008.

[519] Dr Braganza, Bureau of Meteorology, Transcript, 16.

[520] FES.003.001.0008; FEC.360.001.0001 – Keelty et al., Independent Review into South Australia’s 2019-20 Bushfire Season (2020).

[521] Commissioner Fitzsimmons, Resilience NSW, Transcript, 2002.

[522] See AFC.508.001.0010.

[523] AFC.502.001.0049.

[524] AFC.502.001.0049.

[525] AFC.502.001.0049.

[526] NND.001.00824.

[527] HAF.0003.0001.0494.

[528] Commissioner Leach, Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, QFS.501.001.0001.

[529] AFC.503.001.0003.

[530] HAF.0005.0007.0360.

[531] QFS.002.001.0039; Commissioner Whelan, ACT Emergency Services Agency, Transcript, 2026.

[532] Commissioner Baxter, Fire and Rescue NSW, Transcript, 2614. An example of the CCOSC Summary Report: AFC.504.001.0001.

[533] QFS.002.001.0039; SAF.203.004.0017; EMV.0007.0001.0001; HAF.8001.0001.0001.

[534] AFC.503.001.0003.

[535] EMV.0007.0001.000; ESA.502.001.0117; Mr Warrington, Victorian Country Fire Service, Transcript, 2529 and 2531.

[536] AFC.502.001.1049; NND.001.00824.01.

[537] QFS.002.001.0039; SAF.203.004.0017; EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[538] Mr Ellis, Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council, Transcript, 302 and 304.

[539] Mr Ellis, Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council, Transcript, 303.

[540] Commissioner Whelan, ACT Emergency Services Agency, Transcript, 2027–28.

[541] Bushfire History Project contribution Maddy Wallace, VIC.

[542] CSI.508.001.0027; EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[543] PMC.0003.0001.0001.

[544] NSW.006.001.0001.

[545] NSW.006.001.000.

[546] NSW.009.002.0001; CLQ.001.001.0650; SWA.006.001.0001; TAS.507.001.0403; ESA.502.001.0117; SSA.632.001.0046; ESA.508.001.0001.

[547] AFC.504.001.0001.

[548] NSW.009.002.0001; CLQ.001.001.0650; SWA.006.001.0001; TAS.507.001.0403, 001; ESA.502.001.0117; SSA.632.001.0046; ESA.508.001.0001.

[549] ESA.508.001.0001.

[550] TAS.507.001.0403; SWA.006.001.0001.

[551] Acting Commissioner Waters, Western Australian Department of Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript, 2451; Commissioner Rogers, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 1997.

[552] Commissioner Leach, Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript 2150; VIC.0009.0001.0001.

[553] Commissioner Fitzsimmons, Resilience NSW, Transcript 1999.

[554] NND.001.00397; see FEC.360.001.0001.

[555] NND.001.00561; NND.001.00397; Mr McDonough, NSW Rural Fire Service Association, Transcript 1412.

[556] NND.800.001.00056.

[557] Mr Choveaux, Rural Fire Brigades Association Qld Inc.,Transcript, 1440.

[558] Mr Choveaux, Rural Fire Brigades Association Qld Inc.,Transcript, 1440.

[559] Mr Ellis, Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council, Transcript, 309.

[560] AFC.508.001.0037.

[561] AFC.508.001.0016.

[562] Acting Commissioner Waters, Western Australian Department of Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript, 2452.

[563] Commissioner Baxter, Fire and Rescue NSW, Transcript, 2611.

[564] Commissioner Baxter, Fire and Rescue NSW, Transcript, 2611.

[565] AFC.508.001.0037; Commissioner Baxter, Fire and Rescue NSW, Transcript 2612.

[566] AFC.502.001.0006.

[567] AFC.502.001.0006; ESA.502.001.0117; RFS.001.001.0001; QFS.002.001.0039.

[568] AFC.502.001.0006; Mr Alder, National Aerial Firefighting Centre, Transcript 341.

[569] AFC.502.001.0006.

[570] Acting Commissioner Waters, Western Australian Department of Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript, 2452.

[571] South Australia CFS and Victoria CFA have some interoperability of resource information systems – SSA.632.001.0006.

[572] ESA.502.001.0117.

[573] Bushfire History Project contribution Rolfe Poole, NSW.

[574] ESA.502.001.0067; ESA.502.001.0085; NSW.011.001.0001; QFS.501.001.0001.

[575] NND.001.00561; CVC.500.001.0001.

[576] QFS.002.001.0039.

[577] QFS.002.001.0039.

[578] NSW.011.001.0001.

[579] ESA.502.001.0067; Commissioner Leach, Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript, 2153.

[580]Mr Stephenson, Emergency Management Victoria, Transcript, 2063; RFS.001.001.0001.

[581] VIC.0009.0001.0001.

[582] Mr Stephenson, Emergency Management Victoria, Transcript, 2063–64.

[583] EMV.0001.0001.0376.

[584] NSW.006.001.0001.

[585] Ms Paterson, Community Witness, Transcript, 229–30; VIC.0009.0001.0001.

[586] Mr Lazarus, Hume Forests Limited, Transcript, 1538–39; Mr Saunder, Forest Owners’ Conference, Transcript, 1539; NSW.006.001.0001; NND.001.01335; NND.001.01317.

[587] Mr Saunder, Forest Owners’ Conference, Transcript, 1535; CLQ.001.001.0622; SSA.632.001.0046.

[588] Mr Lazarus, Hume Forests Limited, Transcript, 1543–44.

[589] CLQ.001.001.0622.

[590] NSW.009.002.0001.

[591] ESA.508.001.0001.

[592] NSW.006.001.0001; FEC.360.001.0001.

[593] See eg NND.800.001.00095.

[594] Mr Forrest, Beechworth Rural Fire Brigade - Victoria, Transcript, 1454.

[595] Mr Lazarus, Hume Forests Limited, Transcript, 1539.

[596] NND.001.00096; Mr Forrest, Beechworth Rural Fire Brigade - Victoria, Transcript, 1454; Mr Stalker, Samford Rural Fire Brigade - Queensland, Transcript, 1458.

[597] RCN.900.032.0006 – Productivity Commission, Public Safety Mobile Broadband, Productivity Commission Research Report (2015).

[598] EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[599] RCN.001.001.3820 – Parliament of Victoria, 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission: Final Report Summary, (2010) ; RCN.001.003.5766 – Australian Emergency Management Committee, Review of Australia’s Ability to Respond to and Recovery From Catastrophic Disasters (2005); Stuart Ellis, Peter Kanowski and Whelan Rob, National Inquiry on Bushfire Mitigation and Management (Council of Australian Governments, 31 March 2004) <https://www.dfes.wa.gov.au/publications/GeneralReports/FESA_Report-Nati…;; NSW.006.001.0001; FEC.360.001.0001; EMQ.001.001.0711.

[600] Ms De Courteney, NSW Telco Authority, Transcript, 1340–41.

[601] Ms De Courteney, NSW Telco Authority, Transcript, 1340–41; Commissioner McTavish, NSW Cross Border Commission, Transcript, 1198.

[602] NND.800.001.00057.

[603] ESA.502.001.0117; Major General Dunn (Retd), ACT Emergency Services Authority, Transcript, 1489.

[604] Mr Scott, ACT Rural Fire Service, Transcript, 2026; Major General Dunn (Retd), ACT Emergency Services Authority, Transcript, 1489.

[605] NND.001.00096.

[606] Mr Forrest, Beechworth Rural Fire Brigade - Victoria, Transcript, 1454.

[607] Mr Forrest, Beechworth Rural Fire Brigade - Victoria, Transcript, 1454.

[608] Mr McDonough, NSW Rural Fire Service Association, Transcript, 1419; Mr Barnett, Volunteer Fire Brigades Victoria, Transcript, 1420.

[609] NND.800.200.00058; NND.800.001.00057; NND.001.00091.

[610] NND.800.200.00058.

[611] AFC.502.001.0006.

[612] AFC.502.001.0006.

[613] AFC.502.001.0006.

[614] Council of Australian Governments, COAG Meeting Communique 7 December 2009 (2009). <www.coag.gov.au/meeting-outcomes/coag-meeting-communique-7-december-2009/>

[615] RCN.001.001.3820 – Parliament of Victoria, 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission: Final Report Summary, (2010) ; RCN.001.003.5766 – Australian Emergency Management Committee, Review of Australia’s Ability to Respond to and Recovery From Catastrophic Disasters (2005); Stuart Ellis, Peter Kanowski and Whelan Rob, National Inquiry on Bushfire Mitigation and Management (Council of Australian Governments, 31 March 2004) <https://www.dfes.wa.gov.au/publications/GeneralReports/FESA_Report-Nati…;; NSW.006.001.0001 – NSW Government, Final Report of the NSW Bushfire Inquiry (2020); FEC.360.001.0001 – Keelty et al., Independent Review into South Australia’s 2019-20 Bushfire Season (2020); EMQ.001.001.0711 – Queensland Inspector-General Emergency Management, Queensland Bushfires Review: 2019-20 (2020).

[616] SWA.502.001.0133– National Coordinating Committee for Government Radiocommunications, National Framework to Improve Government Radiocommunications Interoperability: Towards a Harmonised Radiocommunications Environment for Public Protection and Disaster Relief - 2010-2020, Report to COAG of the National Disaster Arrangements Working Group (2009).

[617] Ibid, 2.

[618] CTH.900.001.0001; VIC.900.001.0001; SWA.007.001.0002; NSW.900.001.0003; TAS.900.001.0003; NTT.900.001.0003; SSA.900.001.0003; ACT.900.001.0001.

[619] SWA.007.001.0002.

[620] NTT.900.001.0003.

[621] SSA.900.001.0003.

[622] RCN.900.032.0006 – Productivity Commission, Public Safety Mobile Broadband, Productivity Commission Research Report (2015).

[623] Ibid.

[624] Ibid.

[625] NND.001.00096; Mr McDonough, NSW Rural Fire Service Association, Transcript, 1407; QFS.002.001.0039.

[626] Council of Australian Governments, COAG Meeting Communique 7 December 2009 (2009); <www.coag.gov.au/meeting-outcomes/coag-meeting-communique-7-december-2009/>

[627] RCN.900.0032.0427 – Council of Australian Governments, Strategic Roadmap for Public Safety Mobile Broadband 2018 (2018).

[628] Ms De Courteney, NSW Telco Authority, Transcript, 1344–45.

[629] EMV.0007.0001.0001, 90; Ms De Courteney, NSW Telco Authority, Transcript, 1343–44; RFS.001.001.0001.

[630] HAF.9001.0001.0014, 15; EMV.0007.0001.0001; Ms De Courteney, NSW Telco Authority, Transcript, 1343–44; NSW.006.001.0001.

[631] HAF.8003.0001.0001.

[632] Ms De Courteney, NSW Telco Authority, Transcript, 1406; Mr Johnson, Former Commissioner, Queensland Fire and Rescue Service, Transcript, 1517; QFS.002.001.0039; Mr McDonough, NSW Rural Fire Service Association, Transcript, 1407; EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[633] NTA.001.001.0001; CMA.500.001.0001.

[634] NSW.006.001.0001

[635] NND.800.200.00056.

[636] NND.800.200.00056.

[637] NND.800.200.00066.02.

[638] Mr Barnett, Volunteer Fire Brigades Victoria, Transcript, 1415; Mr Saunder, Forest Owners’ Conference, Transcript, 1540; Mr Lazarus, Hume Forests Limited, Transcript, 1540; AFC.508.001.0010.

[639] NND.800.200.00053.

[640] Bushfire History Projecy contribution David Williams, NSW.

[641] NND.800.200.00053.

[642] NND.001.00824.

[643] NND.800.200.00053.

[644] ESA.502.001.0117; FRN.002.001.0001; EMV.0007.0001.0001; QFS.002.001.0085; FES.003.001.0008; SAF.203.004.0017; TPF.500.001.0056; BNT.501.001.0065.

[645] FES.003.001.0003.

[646] AFC.508.001.0844.

[647] AFC.508.001.0844.

[648] RFS.001.001.0001; FES.003.001.0006; AFC.508.001.0844.

[649] SAF.203.004.0017.

[650] ESA.502.001.0117; Mr Lazarus, Hume Forests Limited, Transcript, 1540; Mr Saunder, Forest Owners’ Conference, Transcript, 1540; NND.001.00068.

[651] Mr Saunder, Forest Owners’ Conference, Transcript, 1540.

[652] Mr Wilson, Victorian Cross Border Commissioner, Transcript 1191.

[653] Mr Morgan, Forest Fire Management Committee of the Institute of Foresters Australia & Former Chief Fire Officer, Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment, Transcript, 1532.

[654] FRN.002.001.0001; SAF.203.004.0017; BNT.501.001.0065. NND.800.200.00059. NND.800.001.00093.

[655] Mr Saunder, Forest Owners’ Conference, Transcript, 1540.

[656] AFC.503.001.0003.

[657] Commissioner Baxter, Fire and Rescue NSW, Transcript, 2126.

[658] Commissioner Fitzsimmons, Resilience NSW, Transcript, 1994; Commissioner Whelan, ACT Emergency Services Agency, Transcript, 2027; FES.003.001.0006; AFC.508.001.0844.

[659] AFC.503.001.0003.

[660] EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[661] FES.003.001.0003.

[662] Mr Barnett, Volunteer Fire Brigades Victoria, Transcript, 1418.

[663] QFS.002.001.0039; MFS.204.004.0016; FES.003.001.0003; Mr Barnett, Volunteer Fire Brigades Victoria, Transcript, 1415; Mr Lazarus, Hume Forests Limited, Transcript, 1450.

[664] NND.800.200.00066.02; ESA.502.001.0117.

[665] NND.800.001.00096.

[666] CTH.900.001.0001.

[667] The Jurisdictional Emergency Management Education Network (JEMEN) was established in March 2017 by the Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience (AIDR). It comprises one representative from each Australian state and territory, and Emergency Management Australia.

[668] NND.800.200.00056, 800; CJN.003.001.0001; FES.003.001.0003.

[669] QFS.002.001.0039.

[670] AFC.508.001.0010.

[671] FEC.360.001.0001; NSW.006.001.0001); VIC.0009.0001.0001.

[672] EMV.0007.0001.0001; ESA.502.001.0117; SAF.203.004.0017.

[673] FES.003.001.0006.

[674] SSA.632.001.0046.

[675] Associate Professor Owen, University of Tasmania, Transcript 2684–85; SSA.632.001.0046.

[676] SSA.900.001.0003; ESA.502.001.0117.

[677] SSA.900.001.0003; ESA.502.001.0117; AFC.508.001.0010.

[678] Mr Coyne, Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Transcript, 2897.

[679] Mr Lollback, Local Government Association of Queensland, Transcript, 875–86; Mr Johnson, Former Commissioner, Queensland Fire and Rescue Service, Transcript, 1516; NND.800.001.00036; NND.800.001.00026; NND.800.200.00029.

[680] SSA.900.001.0003.

[681] CTH.902.001.0001; VIC.900.001.0001; NSW.900.001.0003; CLQ.003.001.0001; TAS.900.001.0003; ACT.900.001.0001.

[682] CLQ.003.001.0001.

[683] AFC.503.001.0003.

[684] NND.300.005.0003.

[685] Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, Australian Disaster Resilience Handbook 3: Managing Exercises, Second Edition (2012) <knowledge.aidr.org.au/media/3547/handbook-3-managing-exercises.pdf>.

[686] Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, Australian Disaster Resilience Handbook 3: Managing Exercises, Second Edition (2012) <knowledge.aidr.org.au/media/3547/handbook-3-managing-exercises.pdf>.

[687] Commissioner Fitzsimmons, Resilience NSW, Transcript, 1994; VIC.900.001.0001.

[688] eg RFS.001.001.0001.

[689] eg TAS.500.001.0001.

[690] eg CLQ.001.001.0650.

[691] TAS.507.001.0403.

[692] Commissioner Fitzsimmons, Resilience NSW, Transcript, 2550.

[693] AFC.503.001.0003; FES.003.001.0006.

[694] QFS.002.001.0039; EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[695] FES.003.001.0006.

[696] SWA.007.001.0002.

[697] ACT.900.001.0001; VIC.900.001.0001; SSA.900.001.0003.

[698] CLQ.003.001.0001; TAS.900.001.0003.

[699] PMC.0003.0001.0001 – CSIRO, Climate and Disaster Resilience (2020).

[700] RCN.900.040.0001 – Productivity Commission, Report of Government Services 2020 (2019).

[701] NND.001.00155; NND.001.01235.

[702] NND.001.00561.

[703] RCN.900.040.0001.

[704] Chief Officer Arnol, Tasmanian Department of Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript, 2098; Mr Wood, South Australian Council of Australian Volunteer Fire Associations, Transcript, 1392.

[705] NND.001.01366.

[706] Chief Officer Arnol, Tasmanian Department of Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript, 2098. EMV.0007.0001.0175.

[707] Mr Wood, South Australian Council of Australian Volunteer Fire Associations, Transcript, 1397.

[708] EMV.0007.0001.0001, 56–57; QFS.002.001.0039, 10.

[709] EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[710] Mr Wood, South Australian Council of Australian Volunteer Fire Associations, Transcript, 1410; NND.001.01235; Mr McDonough, NSW Rural Fire Service Association, Transcript, 1410.

[711] NND.001.01235.01 – Council of Australian Volunteer Fire Associations, 2018 Volunteer Welfare and Efficiency Survey, National Report Volunteer Fire Services (2018).

[712] ESA.500.001.0074; NND.001.01051.

[713] NND.800.200.00053.

[714] ESA.500.001.0074; NSW.006.001.0001; RFS.001.001.

[715] NND.001.00035; NND.001.00753; NND.001.01070; NND.001.00696.

[716] NND.600.00157; NND.600.00005; NND.001.00104; Mr Williams, NSW Volunteer Fire Fighters Association, Transcript, 1439.

[717] NND.001.01337; Mr Barnett, Volunteer Fire Brigades Victoria, Transcript, 1409; Mr Williams, NSW Volunteer Fire Fighters Association, Transcript, 1439.

[718] Mr Gossage, Bushfire Volunteers WA, Transcript, 1438; Mr Barnett, Volunteer Fire Brigades Victoria, Transcript, 1410.

[719]Mr Barnett, Volunteer Fire Brigades Victoria, Transcript, 1410.

[720] NSW.006.001.0001 – NSW Government, Final Report of the NSW Bushfire Inquiry (2020).

[721] NND.001.01366.

[722] NND.001.01366.

[723] Commissioner Klemm, Western Australian Department of Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript, 2182.

[724] All data from RCN.900.040.0001 – Productivity Commission, Report of Government Services 2020 (2019).

[725] All data from RCN.900.040.0001 – Productivity Commission, Report of Government Services 2020 (2019).

[726] All data from RCN.900.040.0001 – Productivity Commission, Report of Government Services 2020 (2019).

[728] Mr Barnett, Volunteer Fire Brigades Victoria, Transcript, 1409; Mr Williams, NSW Volunteer Fire Fighters Association, Transcript, 1439.

[729] NND.600.00176; Mr Williams, NSW Volunteer Fire Fighters Association, Transcript, 1439; Mr Barnett, Volunteer Fire Brigades Victoria, Transcript, 1409.

[730] NND.001.00696; NND.800.200.00059; Mr Williams, NSW Volunteer Fire Fighters Association, Transcript, 1439.

[731] NSW.900.001.0003; SSA.632.001.0006; VIC.0011.0001.0001.

[732] SSA.632.001.0040.

[733] VIC.0011.0001.0001.

[734] eg SWA.006.001.0001.

[735] NND.800.200.00050.01.

[736] ESA.500.001.0074_UR.

[737] ESA.500.001.0074_UR.

[738] ESA.500.001.0074_UR; SAF.203.004.0017; EMV.0007.0001.0001; DEF.0001.

[739] ESA.500.001.0074_UR.

[740] NND.800.200.00053.

[741] Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) s110.

[742] Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) s772.

[743] NSW.006.001.0001; SWA.003.001.0001; SSA.632.001.0006.

[744] NSW.009.002.0001; SSA.632.001.0006.

[745] NSW.009.002.0001.

[746] SWA.003.001.0001.

[747] SWA.003.001.0001.

[748] Mr Barnett, Volunteer Fire Brigades Victoria, Transcript, 1409.

[749] ESA.500.001.0074; SAF.203.004.0017; EMV.0007.0001.0001.

Chapter 7 Role of the Australian Defence Force

[750] Lieutenant General Bilton, Chief of Joint Operations, Australian Defence Force, Transcript 450.

[751] Image from Department of Defence (2020) <https://images.defence.gov.au/assets/20200101ran8100087_069.jpg>.

[752] Vice Admiral Johnston AO, Vice Chief of the Australian Defence Force, Transcript 483.

[754] PMC.9004.0001.0001.

[755] DEF.9002.0001.0001.

[756] DEF.500.001.0001.

[757] Lieutenant General Bilton, Chief of Joint Operations, Australian Defence Force, Transcript 469.

[758] DEF.500.001.0001.

[759] DEF.500.001.0001.

[760] DEF.9002.0001.0001.

[761] DEF.9002.0001.0001.

[762] HAF.8001.0001.0171.

[763] EMV.0007.0001.0001 150; FEC.360.001.0001; QFS.002.001.0039 001.

[764] Operation Bushfire Assist 2019-20 was announced on 31 December 2019 and backdated to the start of Phase 1, to cover the full scope of military assistance provided during the bushfire season: DEF.80002.0001.0001; Vice Admiral Johnston AO, Vice Chief of the Australian Defence Force, Transcript, 474.

[765] DEF.8002.0001.0001.

[766] DEF.500.001.0001.

[767] Lieutenant General Bilton, Chief of Joint Operations, Australian Defence Force, Transcript, 461.

[768] Lieutenant General Bilton, Chief of Joint Operations, Australian Defence Force, Transcript, 473.

[769] DEF.0001.0003.0025.

[770] Image from ABC News attributed to News Corp/AAP Ian Currie (9 January 2020) <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-09/evacuees-on-hmas-choules/11853596?nw=0>.

[771] DEF.0001.0002.0123.

[772] Vice Admiral Johnston AO, Vice Chief of the Australian Defence Force, Transcript, 472.

[773] FEC.360.001.0001; BMC.500.001.0003.

[774] BMC.500.001.0003.

[775] PMC.9004.0001.0001; RCN.900.144.0862.

[776] Mr Dawson, Queensland Inspector-General for Emergency Management, Transcript, 1596.

[777] Mr McArthur, Adelaide Hills Council, Transcript, 973.

[778] RCN.900.043.0141.

[779] SHC.503.001.0002.

[780] Ms Prendergast, Resilience NSW, Transcript, 1949.

[781] FES.003.001.0006; DEF.9003.0001.0001; Ms Prendergast, Resilience NSW, Transcript, 1950.

[782] DEF.9007.0001.0001.

[783] HAF.8001.0001.0180

[784] RCN.900.144.0862.

[785] RCN.900.144.0862.

[786] RCN.900.144.0972.

[787] DEF.9002.0001.0001.

[788] DEF.9002.0001.0001; DEF.8002.0001.0001.

[789] DEF.500.001.0001.

[790] SAF.203.004.0017.

[791] Commissioner Fitzsimmons, Resilience NSW, Transcript, 2555.

[792] Chief Officer Arnol, Tasmanian Department of Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript, 2102.

[793] Commissioner Whelan, ACT Emergency Services Agency, Transcript, 2032.

[794] QFS.002.001.0039.

[795] SAF.203.004.0017.

[796] FES.003.001.0006.

[797] Mr Pezzullo AO, Commonwealth Department of Home Affairs, Transcript, 2727.

[798] DEF.8001.0001.0001.

[799] DEF.9006.0001.0001

[800] DEF.9006.0001.0001

[801] Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, ‘Legislation Handbook’ (February 2017), <https://www.pmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/publications/legislation-han…;.

[802] DEF.501.001.0001.

[803] RCN.900.144.0862.

[804] Lieutenant General Bilton, Chief of Joint Operations, Australian Defence Force, Transcript 457.

[805] Lieutenant General Bilton, Chief of Joint Operations, Australian Defence Force, Transcript 457.

[806] Vice Admiral Johnston AO, Vice Chief of the Australian Defence Force, Transcript 457.

[807] QFS.002.001.0012; Ms Prendergast, Resilience NSW, Transcript, 1950.

[808] DEF.9003.0001.0001.

[809] Australian Law Reform Commission, Traditional Rights and Freedoms - Encroachments by Commonwealth Laws: Final Report (No 129, December 2015), <https://www.alrc.gov.au/publication/traditional-rights-and-freedoms-enc…;.

[810] DEF.9006.0001.0001.

[811] Emergencies Act R.S.C. 1985 (Canada).

[812] DEF.9006.0001.0001.

[813] DEF.8001.0001.0001.

Chapter 8 National aerial firefighting capabilities and arrangements

[814] AFC.500.001.0001.

[815] AFC.502.001.0006.

[816] AFC.502.001.0006.

[817] AFC.502.001.0006.

[818] Some types of fixed-wing aircraft can land on water if equipped with floats.

[819] AFC.500.001.0001.

[820] AFC.500.001.0001.

[821] AFC.501.001.0001.

[822] RFS.002.001.0001.

[823] RFS.002.001.0001.

[824] RFS.002.001.0001.

[825] Image from National Aerial Firefighting Centre, ‘Annual Report 2015’ (2015) <http://nafc.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/NAFC-AR-2015-final-ebook.pdf>.

[826] AFC.500.001.0001.

[827] RFS.002.001.0001.

[828] Image from NSW Rural Fire Service, ‘Annual Report 2015-16’ (2016) <http://www.rfs.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/47353/Complete-NSW-RFS-Annual-Report-2015-16.pdf>.

[829] RFS.002.001.0001.

[830] RFS.002.001.0001.

[831] RFS.002.001.0001.

[832] AFC.502.001.0006.

[833] ESA.502.001.0117.

[834] ESA.502.001.0117.

[835] ESA.502.001.0117.

[836] Bushfire History Project contribution, Dylan Brandon, Bundanoon NSW.

[837] PHU.500.001.0001; JMC.500.001.0001; KAV.500.001.0001; RFS.002.001.0001.

[838] RFS.002.001.0001.

[839] JMC.500.001.0001.

[840] AFC.501.001.0001.

[841] QFS.002.001.0012.

[842] AFC.500.001.0001.

[843] National Aerial Firefighting Centre, ‘Aerial Firefighting’ <https://nafc.org.au/?page_id=113&gt;.

[844] AFC.500.001.0001.

[845] RFS.002.001.0001.

[846] RFS.002.001.0001.

[847] Bushfire History Project contribution, Dylan Brandon, Bundanoon NSW.

[848] FRN.002.001.0001; DMC.002.001.0001.

[849] FRN.002.001.0001.

[850] FRN.002.001.0001.

[851] Dr Clothier, Australian Association for Unmanned Systems, Transcript 360.

[852] AFC.502.001.0264.

[853] Ms Ryan, Hancock Victorian Plantations, Transcript 347–353.

[854] AFC.500.001.0001.

[855] AFC.502.001.0264.

[856] AFC.500.001.0001; AFC.502.001.0006; RRY.500.001.0001.

[857] SAF.500.001.0005.

[858] RRY.500.001.0001.

[859] RFS.002.001.0001; QFS.002.001.0012; ESA.500.001.0074; ESA.502.001.0117; FES.003.001.0003; SAF.500.001.0005; SAF.203.004.0017.

[860] RFS.002.001.0001.

[861] RFS.002.001.0001.

[862] RFS.002.001.0001.

[863] RFS.002.001.0001.

[864] ESA.502.001.0117.

[865] ESA.502.001.0117.

[866] EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[867] ESA.502.001.0117.

[868] ESA.502.001.0117.

[869] FRN.003.001.0001.

[870] FRN.003.001.0001.

[871] FRN.003.001.0001.

[872] ESA.502.001.0117.

[873] ESA.502.001.0117.

[874] ESA.502.001.0117.

[875] AFC.500.001.0001.

[876] AFC.502.001.0264.

[877] SAF.203.004.0017.

[878] SAF.203.004.0017.

[879] AFC.500.001.0001; NND.600.00269.

[880] VIC.0009.0001.0001 – Victorian Inspector-General for Emergency Management, Inquiry into the 2019-20 Victorian Fire Season, Phase 1: Community and Sector Preparedness for and Response to the 2019-20 Fire Season, (2020).

[881] ESA.502.001.0117; SAF.203.004.0017; EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[882] AFC.500.001.0001.

[883] NND.001.00824.01.

[884] NND.001.00824.01.

[885] Mr Alder, National Aerial Firefighting Centre, Transcript 325.

[886] Mr Alder, National Aerial Firefighting Centre, Transcript 326, 334 and 338.

[887] Mr Alder, National Aerial Firefighting Centre, Transcript 326.

[888] NND.001.00824.01.

[889] NND.001.00824.01.

[890] AFC.502.001.0006.

[891] AFC.502.001.0006.

[892] AFC.500.001.0001.

[893] AFC.500.001.0001.

[894] AFC.502.001.0006.

[895] Mr Alder, National Aerial Firefighting Centre, Transcript 328-9; AFC.500.001.0001; AFC.502.001.1566; AFC.505.001.0055.

[896] HAF.9002.0001.0002.

[897] AFC.502.001.1566.

[898] AFC.511.001.0475; AFC.513.001.0097.

[899] AFC.505.001.0054; AFC.511.001.0477.

[900] AFC.502.001.1566.

[901] AFC.511.001.0539.

[902] AFC.511.001.0539.

[903] RCN.900.087.0001; HAF.9001.0001.0014.

[904] HAF.9001.0001.0014.

[905] HAF.501.001.0001.

[906] AFC.501.001.0001.

[907] AFC.501.001.0001.

[908] ESA.500.001.0074.

[909] RFS.002.001.0001.

[910] RFS.002.001.0001.

[911] AFC.502.001.1641; Mr Alder, National Aerial Firefighting Centre, Transcript 327–328.

[912] AFC.500.001.0001.

[913] AFC.500.001.0001; AFC.502.001.0006.

[914] AFC.500.001.0001.

[915] AFC.502.001.0006; AFC.502.001.1641.

[916] AFC.500.001.0001.

[917] AFC.502.001.0006.

[918] AFC.502.001.0006.

[919] AFC.502.001.0006.

[920] AFC.500.001.0001.

[921] AFC.502.001.0006.

[922] AFC.502.001.0006.

[923] PHU.500.001.0001 008.

[924] PHU.500.001.0001 008.

[925] KAV.500.001.0001; Mr Cronin, Kestrel Aviation, Transcript 368; Mr Hurst, Aerial Application Association of Australia, Transcript 367; Mr McDermott, McDermott Aviation, Transcript 369.

[926] Mr McDermott, McDermott Aviation, Transcript 369.

[927] PHU.500.001.0001.

[928] PHU.500.001.0001.

[929] Mr McDermott, McDermott Aviation, Transcript 369.

[930] Mr McDermott, McDermott Aviation, Transcript 369.

[931] Image from Department of Defence attributed to CPL Bill Solomou (2019) <https://images.defence.gov.au/assets/Home/Search?Query=20191109raaf8526…;.

[932] DEF.9003.0001.0001.

[933] DEF.9003.0001.0001.

[934] DEF.9003.0001.0001.

[935] DEF.9003.0001.0001.

[936] DEF.9003.0001.0001.

[937] DEF.9003.0001.0001.

[938] DEF.9003.0001.0001.

[939] AFC.502.001.0006.

[940] DEF.9003.0001.0001.

[941] AFC.502.001.0006.

[942] AFC.502.001.0006.

[943] AFC.502.001.0006.

[944] AFC.502.001.0006.

[945] AFC.502.001.0006.

[946] AFC.500.001.0001; AFC.502.001.0006.

[947] AFC.502.001.0006.

[948] AFC.502.001.0006. See also NSW.006.001.0001.

[949] AFC.502.001.0006.

[950] AFC.502.001.0006.

[951] AFC.502.001.0006.

[952] AFC.500.001.0001; PHU.500.001.0001; Mr Cronin, Kestrel Aviation, Transcript 368

[953] AFC.502.001.0264.

[954] PHU.500.001.0001.

[955] RRY.500.001.0001.

[956] Mr Cronin, Kestrel Aviation, Transcript 368

[957] NSW.006.001.0001.

[958] AFC.502.001.0006.

[959] Mr Alder, National Aerial Firefighting Centre, Transcript 340.

[960] Mr Alder, National Aerial Firefighting Centre, Transcript 341.

[961] AFC.500.001.0001.

[962] AFC.502.001.0006; AFC.511.001.0452.

[963] NND.001.00824.01.

[964] SAF.500.001.0005.

[965] Mr Alder, National Aerial Firefighting Centre, Transcript, 338.

[966] RFS.002.001.0001.

[967] SAF.500.001.0005.

[968] SWA.003.001.0001.

[969] QFS.002.001.0012; EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[970] EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[971] EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[972] ESA.502.001.0117.

[973] SAF.203.004.0017.

[974] FES.003.001.0008.

[975] FES.003.001.0008.

[976] QFS.002.001.0039.

[977] AFC.502.001.0006.

[978] AFC.502.001.0006.

[979] AFC.500.001.0001.

[980] AFC.502.001.0006.

[981] FEC.360.001.0001.

[982] VIC.0009.0001.0001.

[983] Mr Ellis, Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council, Transcript 307.

[984] AFC.500.001.0001.

[985] ENN.500.001.0032.

[986] ENN.500.001.0032.

[987] AFC.502.001.0006.

[988] AFC.502.001.0006.

[989] AFC.500.001.0001.

[990] AFC.502.001.0006.

[991] AFC.502.001.0006.

[992] ENN.500.001.0032.

[993] ASS.501.001.0001.

[994] AFC.500.001.0001.

[995] AFC.502.001.0006.

[996] AFC.502.001.0006.

[997] AFC.502.001.0006.

[998] AFC.502.001.0006.

[999] AFC.502.001.0006.

[1000] NND.001.00824.01.

[1001] AFC.500.001.0001; AFC.502.001.0006.

[1002] HAF.9001.0001.0014.

[1003] AFC.502.001.0006.

[1004] AFC.502.001.0006.

[1005] PHU.500.001.0001.

[1006] ASS.501.001.000.

[1007] ASS.501.001.000.

[1008] ASS.501.001.000.

[1009] ASS.501.001.000.

[1010] NND.300.005.0004.

[1011] NND.300.005.0004.

[1012] NND.300.007.0006.

Chapter 9 Essential services

[1013] NND.001.01336; NND.600.00212; NND.001.00807; Mr McArthur, Adelaide Hills Council, Transcript; NND.001.00603.

[1014] Freight Australia, ‘Supply Chains by the Numbers’ (July 2019) < https://www.freightaustralia.gov.au/a-closer-look/supply-chains-by-the-numbers>.

[1015] ‘National Freight and Supply Chain Strategy’ (Transport and Infrastructure Council, August 2019) < https://www.freightaustralia.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/national-freight-and-supply-chain-strategy.pdf>.

[1016] eg RFS.5002.0001.0941.

[1017] VIC.0009.0001.0001 – Victorian Inspector-General for Emergency Management, Inquiry into the 2019-20 Victorian Fire Season, Phase 1: Community and Sector Preparedness for and Response to the 2019-20 Fire Season (2020).

[1018] VIC.0009.0001.0001; NSW.006.001.0001 – NSW Government, Final Report of the NSW Bushfire Inquiry (31 July 2020).

[1019] Figure from Duane Verner, Frederic Petit, and Kibaek Kim, ‘Incorporating Prioritisation in Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience Programs’ (2017) Homeland Security Affairs 13(7) as cited in RFS.5002.0001.0941.

[1020] NND.001.00452; NND.001.01062; NND.001.00484.

[1021] NND.001.00324; NND.001.01062.

[1022] NND.001.00441.

[1023] NND.001.00484.

[1024] NND.600.00265.

[1025] Mr Hyde, Snowy Valley Council, Transcript 1008-1009.

[1026] RFS.001.001.0001; TLS.003.001.0001.

[1027] Mr Bascomb, Snowy Monaro Regional Council, Transcript 1010.

[1028] RFS.001.001.0001.

[1029] Mr Gatt, Transgrid, Transcript 1370. See also RCN.900.026.0005 (Transgrid Network Area Map); RCN.900.026.0001 (AusNet Services Network Area Map); RCN.900.026.0003 (Essential Energy Network Area Map); RCN.900.026.0002 (Endeavour Energy Network Area Map)

[1030] HAF.8001.0001.0171. HAF.8001.0001.0079.

[1031] EMO.503.001.0001.

[1032] Mr Gatt, Transgrid, Transcript 1370.

[1033] RCN.900.112.0415 – Deborah O’Connell et al, Approach, Methods and Results for Co-Producing a Systems Understanding of Disaster: Technical Report Supporting the Development of the Australian Vulnerability Profile, (CSIRO, October 2018).

[1034] Dr Cainey, Energy Networks Australia, Transcript 1351; Mr Gatt, Transgrid, Transcript 1364

[1035] See ENE.500.001.0001; ESE.002.001.0001; ANS.500.001.0018; AGR.501.001.0001.

[1036] ANS.500.001.0018; ESE.002.001.0001; ENE.500.001.0001.

[1037] ESE.002.001.0001.

[1038] CMA.8001.0001.0023. Figures current as at April 2020. Note that the Australian Communications and Media Authority published an addendum updating the total number of telecommunications outages (see RNC.900.037.0001).

[1039] CMA.8001.0001.0023.

[1040] TLS.002.001.0053; OPT.500.001.0005; NBN.500.001.0001; VOD.500.001.0001. Mr Whitelaw, NBN Co, Mr Pickens, Vodafone, Mr Pesavento, Optus, and Mr Seneviratne, Telstra, Transcript 1306.

[1041] EMV.0001.0003.0399; RCN.900.058.0001.

[1042] RFS.5002.0001.0941.

[1043] RFS.5002.0001.0941.

[1044] RFS.5002.0001.0941.

[1045] CMA.8001.0001.0001.

[1046] AER.501.001.0002.

[1047] HAF.503.001.0001.

[1048] RFS.5002.0001.0941.

[1049] RFS.5002.0001.0941; RCN.900.034.0092.

[1050] Commissioner Halton, National COVID-19 Coordination Commission Advisory Board, Transcript 2600–2601.

[1051] Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities, Inquiry into National Freight and Supply Chain Priorities (March 2018). <https://www.infrastructure.gov.au/transport/freight/freight-supply-chain-priorities/index.aspx>

[1052] ‘Implementation Plans’ (22 November 2019) < https://www.freightaustralia.gov.au/what-are-we-doing/implementation-plans> Deakin University’s Centre for Supply Chain and Logistics, which focuses research on freight logistics and value-added supply chains, worked with the former Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities, and industry partners, to undertake a two-year scenario planning project to develop the Strategy. They then examined the future-readiness of high-level action areas and long-term directions with industry partners for inclusion in the National Action Plan.

[1053] Australian Government, ‘National Freight and Supply Chain Strategy: 2019 Commonwealth Implementation Plan’ (2019). <https://www.freightaustralia.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/cwth_actions-for_website_0.pdf>

[1054] Freight Australia, ‘What Is the Strategy?’ <https://www.freightaustralia.gov.au/what-is-the-strategy>

[1055] Ms Barnes, Bega Valley Council, Transcript 1071.

[1056] HAF.9002.0001.0001; NND.001.01173.01; NND.600.00365; HAF.8003.0001.0001; HAF.8004.0001.0001.

[1057] NND.001.01339.

[1058] HAF.9002.0001.0001.

[1059] The National Medical Stockpile is a strategic cache of pharmaceuticals and medical equipment for use in a pandemic and other emergencies. Professor Murphy, Commonwealth Department of Health, Transcript 2586. See also HEA.9001.002.0001; HEA.0001.0001.0004.

[1060] A community cache is a locally based resource stockpile that could be accessed by the local community during and after a natural disaster.

[1061] Ms De Courteney, NSW Telco Authority, Transcript 1342.

[1062] Mr Coyne, Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Transcript 2909.

[1063] Commissioner Halton AO, National COVID-19 Coordination Commission Advisory Board, Transcript 2600.

[1064] Mr Cameron OAM, Emergency Management Australia, Transcript 2649–2650.

[1065] HAF.8003.0001.0001.

[1066] Mr Pezzullo AO, Commonwealth Department of Home Affairs, Transcript 2738–2739.

[1067] Mr Pezzullo AO, Commonwealth Department of Home Affairs, Transcript 2739.

[1068] NSW.001.001.0001.

[1069] Mr Dinan, NSW Department of Transport, Transcript 1294; Mr Staples, NSW Department of Transport, Transcript 1294.

[1070] RTA.500.001.0001.

[1072] Mr Staples, NSW Department of Transport, Transcript 1279.

[1073] NTT.901.001.0001.

[1074] RTA.500.001.0001.

[1075] Mr Dumesny, Western Roads Federation, Transcript 1246.

[1076] NSW.006.001.0001; Mr Staples, NSW Department of Transport, Transcript 1265.

[1078] NSW.006.001.0001

[1079] Mr Northey, Victorian Department of Transport, Transcript 1264; Mr Lunson, Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads, Transcript 1267; Mr Brown, South Australian Department of Planning, Transport and Infrastructure, Transcript 1268.; LIS.500.001.0001.

[1080] Mr Shearer, South Australian Road and Transport Association, Transcript 1245–1246; Mr Dumesny, Western Roads Federation, Transcript 1246–1249; RTA.500.001.0001.

[1081] NSW Department of Transport, RMS.001.001.0001; Victorian Government, Victorian State Response, EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[1082] EMV.000.0001.0001; Mr Staples, NSW Department of Transport, Transcript 1271.

[1083] RMS.001.001.000; NSW.006.001.0001; Mr Northey, Victorian Department of Transport, Transcript 1269; Mr Staples, NSW Department of Transport, Transcript 1270.

[1084] NSW.010.001.0001

[1085] LIS.500.001.0001

[1086] RMS.001.001.0001; NSW Government, Final Report of the NSW Bushfire Inquiry, NSW.006.001.0001 (31 July 2020) 363–364. Mr Northey, Victorian Department of Transport, Transcript 1264; Mr Staples, NSW Department of Transport, Transcript 1265.

[1087] NSW.006.001.0001; RMS.001.001.0001; EMV.0007.0001.0001; Mr Staples, NSW Department of Transport, Transcript 1265–66.

[1088] Mr Staples, NSW Department of Transport, Transcript 1270.

[1089] VIC.0009.0001.0001.

[1090] EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[1091] RTA.500.001.0001; WRF.500.001.0001.

[1092] RTA.500.001.0001.

[1093] Mr Shearer, South Australian Road and Transport Association, Transcript 1267; Mr Brown, South Australian Department of Planning, Transport and Infrastructure, Transcript 1268; Mr Staples, NSW Department of Transport, Transcript 1274.

[1094] TAS.900.001.0003; NTT.901.001.0001; CLQ.003.001.0001; VIC.900.001.0001; SSA.900.001.0003

[1095] Mr Dumesny, Western Roads Federation, Transcript 1249.

[1096] Mr Marks, Australian Trucking Association, Transcript 1248.

[1097] Australian Trucking Association, NND.001.00214.

[1098] TLS.002.001.0053; OPT.500.001.0005; VOD.500.001.0001.

[1099] ENE.500.001.0001.

[1100] ESE.001.001.2365; ESE.001.001.1558.

[1101] EAU.500.001.0711; Mr Jenner, Essential Energy, Transcript 1383; ESE.001.001.2365; EGX.500.007.0001; EGX.500.002.0178. See also Ms Crawford-Flett, AusNet, Transcript 1373.

[1102] Mr Jenner, Essential Energy, Transcript 1377; ESE.002.001.0001.

[1103] Mr Jenner, Essential Energy, Transcript 1377; Dr Cainey, Energy Networks Australia, Transcript 1357; EAU.500.001.0715.

[1104] HAF.503.001.0001.

[1105] HAF.503.001.0001.

[1106] Mr Gatt, Transgrid, Transcript 1381.

[1107] EMO.503.001.0001.

[1108] Under the Emergency Management Act 2013 (Vic).

[1109] Ms Phelps, Towong Shire Council, Transcript 1009.

[1110] Mr Peterson, Moreton Bay Regional Council, Transcript 889.

[1111] Ms Jones, Richmond Valley Council, Transcript 909.

[1112] Ms Jones, Richmond Valley Council, Transcript 909.

[1113] VOD.500.001.0001.

[1114] HAF.503.001.0001.

[1115] HAF.503.001.0001.

[1116] RCN.900.042.0001; NBN.500.001.0001; TLS.003.001.0001; OPT.500.001.0005; OPT.501.001.0001.

[1117] Ms Crawford-Flett, AusNet, Transcript 1365-1366; ESE.002.001.0001; TLS.003.001.0001. Mr Pesavento, Optus, Transcript 1323-1324.

[1118] Submission NND.001.01184.

[1119] Mr Pesavento, Optus, Transcript 1307; Mr Seneviratne, Telstra, Transcript 1308.

[1120] ESE.002.001.0001.

[1121] NBN.500.002.0001 (NBN Co. pilot program with Cross Dependency Initiative (XDI)).

[1122] NND.001.01107; NND.001.00615; NND.600.00269.

[1123] Mr Pesavento, Optus, Transcript 1312; Mr Seneviratne, Telstra, and Mr Pickens, Vodafone, Transcript 1313.

[1124] NND.001.00037; NND.001.00135; NND.001.00227.

[1125] TLS.003.001.0001.

[1126] NND.001.01013 P 57; ESE.002.001.0001; CMA.8001.0001.0023.

[1127] eg NND.001.01184; ENE.500.001.0001; ESE.002.001.0001.

[1128] AEC.500.001.0434.

[1129] TLS.003.001.0001; VOD.500.001.0001.

[1130] NBN.500.001.0001; NBN.500.002.0001.

[1131] The Hon Mark Coulton MP, Minister for Regional Health, Regional Communications and Local Government, ‘Strengthening Telecommunications Emergency Resilience’ (Media Release, 12 May 2020).

[1132] VOD.500.001.0001; TLS.003.001.0001.

[1133] TLS.002.001.0053.

[1134] TLS.002.001.0053.

[1135] OPT.501.001.0001.

[1136] EAU.500.001.0711.

[1137] EAU.500.001.0711. Mr Whitelaw, NBN Co, Transcript 1320-1321; NBN.500.002.0001.

[1138] Mr Pickens, Vodafone Hutchison Australia, Transcript 1315-1317.

[1139] Ms Scarlett, Telstra, Transcript 1315-1316.

[1140] Mr Pickens, Vodafone Hutchison Australia, Transcript 1317; HAF.503.001.0001; NND.600.00118.

[1141] HAF.8004.0001.0001.

[1142] CTH.900.001.0001.

[1143] Mr Ryan, Endeavour Energy, Transcript 1373-1374.

[1144] eg ESE.002.001.0001.

[1145] Mr Ryan, Endeavour Energy, Transcript 1373.

[1146] VOD.500.001.0001.

[1147] TLS.002.001.0053.

[1148] VOD.500.001.0001; TLS.002.001.0053.

[1149] NND.600.00118; TLS.002.001.0053.

[1150] NND.600.00118; TLS.002.001.0053; OPT.500.001.0005.

[1151] VOD.500.001.0001.

[1152] TLS.002.001.0053; NND.600.00118.

[1153] HAF.502.001.0001 001.

[1154] VOD.500.001.0001; NND.600.00118.

[1155] VOD.500.001.0001.

Chapter 10 Community education

[1156] BOM.9002.0001.0064 – Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, (Australian Emergency Management Arrangements Handbook 2019).

[1157] BOM.9002.0001.0064.

[1158] RCN.900.034.0092.

[1159] NND.001.00126.

[1160] NND.001.00311.

[1161] Mary Hoodless, Community Witness, Transcript 6; RCN.500.001.2530.

[1162] RCN.707.001.0014.

[1163] NND.001.01080.

[1164] NND.001.00843.

[1165] Mr Robb, Community Witness, Transcript 3; RCN.500.001.2557.

[1166] CLQ.003.001.0001.

[1167] Western Australian Department of Fire and Emergency Services, ‘Fire Chat: In a Bushfire Every Five Minutes Counts’ <https://www.dfes.wa.gov.au/firechat/Pages/default.htm&gt;.

[1168] NSW.007.001.0001.

[1169] TAS.900.001.0003.

[1170] ACT.900.001.0001.

[1172] RCN.001.001.3820 – 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission: Final Report Summary, (July 2010); NSW.006.001.0001 – NSW Government, Final Report of the NSW Bushfire Inquiry (31 July 2020); FEC.360.001.0001 – Michael Keelty et al, Independent Review into South Australia’s 2019-20 Bushfire Season, (Government of South Australia, June 2020).

Chapter 11 Emergency planning

[1173] Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, ‘Australian Disaster Resilience Handbook Collection: Emergency Planning’ (2020) <https://www.aidr.org.au/media/8051/aidr_handbookcollection_emergencyplanning_2020-09-09_v10.pdf>.

[1174] BOM.9002.0001.0064 – Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, ‘Australian Disaster Resilience Handbook Collection: Australian Emergency Management Arrangements Handbook’.

[1175] Ibid.

[1176] Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, ‘Australian Disaster Resilience Handbook Collection: Emergency Planning’ (2020) <https://www.aidr.org.au/media/8051/aidr_handbookcollection_emergencyplanning_2020-09-09_v10.pdf>.

[1177] NSW.011.001.0001.

[1178] NSW.011.001.0001.

[1179] NSW.011.001.0001

[1180] Ms Tehan, Victorian Council of Social Services, Transcript 2238; Ms Evans, Legal Aid NSW, Transcript 2238; NND.001.00522.

[1181] PBU.500.001.0047.

[1182] NND.001.00522; NND.800.001.00054; NND.800.001.00073; NND.800.001.00081.

[1183] RSP.500.001.0002; Dr Westcott, South Australian Veterinary Emergency Management, Transcript p 2280; WHA.500.001.0012.

[1184] TLS.002.001.0053.

[1185] NND.300.007.0070; NND.300.007.0020; NND.300.007.0034; NND.300.007.0021; NND.300.007.0051; NND.300.008.0018; NND.300.007.0053; NND.300.007.0067; NND.300.008.0011.

[1186] BOM.9002.0001.0064 – Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, ‘Australian Disaster Resilience Handbook Collection: Australian Emergency Management Arrangements Handbook’, 2019.

[1187] ‘Territory’ as used in this section is in reference to the Northern Territory, as the only territory with local governments.

[1188] Hearings on local government were conducted between 22 and 24 June 2020: Transcript 855-1132.

[1189] BOM.9002.0001.0064 – Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, ‘Australian Disaster Resilience Handbook Collection: Australian Emergency Management Arrangements Handbook’; EMV.0001.0003.0399; LGN.500.001.0038.

[1190] LGN.500.001.0038; BOM.9002.0001.0064 – Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, ‘Australian Disaster Resilience Handbook Collection: Australian Emergency Management Arrangements Handbook’.

[1191] Mr Florence, Indigo Shire Council, Transcript 1055.

[1192] VIC.0006.0001.0001.

[1193] PCS.548.001.0001 001.

[1194] CLQ.001.001.0635.

[1195] SWA.005.001.0003.

[1196] NSW.007.001.0001; TAS.505.001.0001; NTT.506.001.0246.

[1197] NSW.007.001.0001.

[1198] Ms Phelps, Towong Shire Council, Transcript 1015; Ms Pagan, Towong Shire Council, Transcript 1058.

[1199] Mr Peterson, Moreton Bay Regional Council, Transcript 886; Moreton Bay Regional Council, ‘Financial Statements for the Year Ended 30 June 2019’ (2019) <https://www.moretonbay.qld.gov.au/files/assets/public/services/annual-report/annual-report-2018-19/annual-report-2018-19-financial-statements.pdf>.

[1200] Mr Peterson, Moreton Bay Regional Council, Transcript 885.

[1201] Mr Peterson, Moreton Bay Regional Council, Transcript 890.

[1203] Ms Phelps, Towong Shire Council, Transcript 1007.

[1204] Ms Phelps, Towong Shire Council, Transcript 1016.

[1205] Ms Phelps, Towong Shire Council, Transcript 1015.

[1206] Ms Phelps, Towong Shire Council, Transcript 1016.

[1207] Images obtained from nationalmap.gov.au using data sourced from the Australian Bureau of Statistics.

[1208] RCN.900.013.0001 – Victorian Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Councils and Emergencies: Capability and Capacity Evaluation Report (December 2019).

[1209] RCN.900.013.0001.

[1210] VIC.0006.0001.0001.

[1211] CLQ.003.001.0188.

[1212] VIC.0009.0001.0001 – Victorian Inspector-General for Emergency Management, Inquiry into the 2019-20 Victorian Fire Season, Phase 1: Community and Sector Preparedness for and Response to the 2019-20 Fire Season, (2020); Mr Edwards, Municipal Association of Victoria, Transcript 1022; MAU.500.001.0012.

[1213] VIC.0006.0001.0001.

[1214] Ms Dench, Wollondilly Shire Council, Transcript 1074-1075.

[1215] Ms Dench, Wollondilly Shire Council, Transcript 1075; NSW.007.001.0001.

[1216] NSW.007.001.0001.

[1217] CLQ.001.001.0635.

[1218] Mr Lollback, Local Government Association of Queensland, Transcript 872; CLQ.001.001.0266 – Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, ‘Queensland Prevention, Preparedness, Response and Recovery Disaster Management Guideline’ (January 2018).

[1219] NSW.900.001.0003; SSA.900.001.0003.

[1220] VIC.900.001.0001.

[1221] SWA.007.001.0002.

Chapter 12 Evacuation planning and shelters

[1222] Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, ‘Australian Disaster Resilience Handbook 4: Evacuation Planning’ (2017) <https://knowledge.aidr.org.au/media/5617/aidr-evacuation-planning-handb…;.

[1223] SWA.006.001.0001; EMQ.001.001.0585.

[1224] EMV.0007.0001.0001 667; CJN.002.001.0050 – NSW SEMC Evacuation Working Group, ‘State Emergency Management Plan: Evacuation Management Guidelines’ (March 2014); ESA.510.001.0002.

[1225] The ACT indicated that it applies the guidance in the Australian Institute Disaster Resilience’s Evacuation Planning Handbook.

[1226] CLQ.001.001.0650; NTT.509.001.0050; TAS.507.001.0403; VIC.0011.0001.0001.

[1227] ESA.510.001.0002; CLQ.001.001.0650; TAS.507.001.0403; VIC.0011.0001.0001; SWA.006.001.0001; NSW.009.002.0027.

[1228] DMC.001.001.0972 – Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, ‘Queensland Prevention, Preparedness, Response and Recovery Disaster Management Guideline,’ (January 2018).

[1229] VIC.0011.0001.0001.

[1230] KIC.500.001.0002.

[1231] Mr Lunson, Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads, Transcript 1283.

[1232] EGC.503.001.0001.

[1233] Mr McTavish, NSW Cross Border Commissioner, Transcript, 1199.

[1234] EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[1235] NND.001.00324.01.

[1236] NND.001.00784; SHC.503.001.0002.

[1237] NND.001.00435.01.

[1238] Bushfire History Project contribution, Peter Dunn, Conjola, NSW.

[1239] NND.001.00324.01_0001.

[1240] NSW.006.001.0001 – NSW Government, Final Report of the NSW Bushfire Inquiry, (31 July 2020); VIC.0009.0001.0001 – Victorian Inspector-General for Emergency Management, Inquiry into the 2019-20 Victorian Fire Season, Phase 1: Community and Sector Preparedness for and Response to the 2019-20 Fire Season, (2020).

[1241] NSW.006.001.0001 – NSW Government, Final Report of the NSW Bushfire Inquiry, (31 July 2020).

[1242] VIC.0009.0001.0001 – Victorian Inspector-General for Emergency Management, Inquiry into the 2019-20 Victorian Fire Season, Phase 1: Community and Sector Preparedness for and Response to the 2019-20 Fire Season, (2020).

[1243] SHC.503.001.0002; EGC.503.001.0001; EGC.502.001.0044; BVC.500.001.0001.

[1244] Mr Staples, Department of Transport, Transcript 1279; Mr Dinan, Transport for NSW, Transcript 1287-8.

[1245] Mr McTavish, NSW Cross Border Commissioner, Transcript 1199-1200.

[1246] BVC.500.001.0001.

[1247] Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, ‘Australian Disaster Resilience Handbook 4: Evacuation Planning’ (2017).

[1248] FEC.360.001.0001 – Michael Keelty et al, Independent Review into South Australia’s 2019-20 Bushfire Season, (Government of South Australia, June 2020).

[1249] EGC.503.001.0001.

[1250] EGC.503.001.0001.

[1251] NSW.006.001.0001 – NSW Government, Final Report of the NSW Bushfire Inquiry, (31 July 2020).

[1252] SHC.503.001.0002.

[1253] SRC.500.001.0001.

[1254] FEC.360.001.0001 – Michael Keelty et al, Independent Review into South Australia’s 2019-20 Bushfire Season, (Government of South Australia, June 2020); DMC.001.001.0972 – Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, ‘Queensland Prevention, Preparedness, Response and Recovery Disaster Management Guideline,’ (January 2018).

[1255] Mr Stephenson, Emergency Management Victoria, Transcript 1281.

[1256] Mr Stephenson, Emergency Management Victoria, Transcript 1295; Mr Dinan, NSW Department of Transport, Transcript 1295.

[1257] Mr Dinan, NSW Department of Transport, Transcript 1294; Mr Staples, NSW Department of Transport, Transcript 1294 and 1286.

[1258] Mr McConnell, East Gippsland Shire Council, Transcript 914; Mr Stenton, City of Swan, Transcript 994; Mr Hyde, Snowy Valley Council, Transcript 1021.

[1259] SVC.500.001.0001 at .0011.

[1260] FSA.068.001.0014.

[1261] Mr Fernandez, Kangaroo Island Council, Transcript 932–933.

[1262] SSA.901.001.0003; CLQ.003.001.0001; SWA.007.001.0002; TAS.900.001.0003.

[1263] Mr Slijepcevic, Country Fire Authority Victoria, Transcript 669.

[1264] Mr Warren Sharpe, Eurobodalla Shire Council, Transcript 939; Mr Schroder, Clarence Valley, Transcript 965; Ms Martin, South Australian Department of Environment and Water, Transcript 1718.

[1265] KIC.500.001.0002; NND.001.01092.02.

[1266] FSA.068.001.0014.

[1267] Mr Hyde, Snowy Valley Council, Transcript 1013.

[1268] NSW.006.001.0001.

[1270] NSW.006.001.0001.

[1271] Ms Prendergast, Resilience NSW, Transcript 1920–1921; Mr Hine, Tasmania Police, Transcript 2098–2099.

[1272] NSW Government, ‘Evacuation Management Guidelines: COVID 19 Supplement, V2.0’ (August 2020) < https://www.emergency.nsw.gov.au/Documents/publications/guidelines/Guid…;.

[1273] NND.001.00363.01.

[1274] Major General Peter Dunn (Retd), ACT Emergency Services Authority, Transcript 1491–1492.

[1275] NND.001.00363.01.

[1276] Major General Peter Dunn (Retd), ACT Emergency Services Authority, Transcript 1491.

[1277] DEF.0001.0002.0123.

[1278] EGC.502.001.0001 19.

[1279] KIC.500.001.0002 8.

[1280] KIC.502.001.0012 7.

[1281] KIC.502.001.0012 8.

[1282] NSW.009.002.0041.

[1283] SWA.006.001.0001; CLQ.001.001.0695; TAS.507.001.0403; TAS.507.001.0179.

[1284] ESA.510.001.0002.

[1285] NSW.009.002.0027; CLQ.001.001.0695; SSA.632.001.0068.
In South Australia responsibility for Bushfire Safer Places and Last Resort Refuges lies with the Bushfire Management Committee, assessed by assessments and evaluations conducted by the CFS.

[1286] DMC.001.001.0664 – Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, ‘Evacuation: Responsibilities, Arrangements and Management Manual.1.190’ (18 September 2018) 6.4.3.

[1287] DMC.001.001.0972 – Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, ‘Queensland Prevention, Preparedness, Response and Recovery Disaster Management Guideline,’ (January 2018); CJN.002.001.0050 – NSW SEMC Evacuation Working Group, ‘State Emergency Management Plan: Evacuation Management Guidelines’ (March 2014); FES.005.001.0023.

[1288] EMV.0003.0003.0315 –Emergency Management Victoria, ‘Bushfire Safety Policy Framework’ (November 2018).

[1289] RFS.001.001.0001.

[1290] EMV.0009.0001.0001.

[1291] TAS.507.001.0179.

[1292] SAF.203.004.0017.

[1293] SAF.203.004.0017.

[1294] CLQ.001.001.0695; NTT.509.001.0064.

[1295] DMC.001.001.0664

[1296] CLQ.001.001.0695.

[1297] CFA Victoria, ‘Community Fire Refuges’ (2020), <https://www.cfa.vic.gov.au/plan-prepare/community-fire-refuges/&gt;.

[1298] EMV.0001.0003.0020 – Emergency Management Victoria, 2018 South West Fires Community Report, (December 2019).

[1299] NSW.009.002.0027.

[1300] Ms Hoodless, Community Witness, Transcript 1157.

[1301] Mr Ierino, Indigo Shire Council, Transcript 1059; Mr Georgopoulos, Kangaroo Island Council, Transcript 934.

[1302] KIC.502.001.0012.

[1303] EMV.0001.0003.0020 – Emergency Management Victoria, 2018 South West Fires Community Report, (December 2019).

[1304] Indigo Shire Council, NND.001.01158 2.

[1305] FEC.360.001.0001 – Michael Keelty et al, Independent Review into South Australia’s 2019-20 Bushfire Season, (Government of South Australia, June 2020); EMQ.001.001.0711 – Queensland Inspector-General Emergency Management, Queensland Bushfires Review: 2019-20, (No 2, State of Queensland, 20 February 2020) 35.

[1306] RCN.900.043.0001.

[1307] RCN.900.043.0001; See also Ms Buck, Sunshine Coast Council, Transcript 993–994; RCN.900.043.0001.

[1308] Mr McConnell, East Gippsland Shire Council, Transcript 925.

[1309] NSW.009.002.0027.

[1310] NND.001.00363.

[1311] NND.600.00093; NND.001.01220; NND.001.01071; NND.001.00976; NND.001.00957; NND.001.00784; NND.001.00117; NND.600.00056; NND.001.00816; Mr Sharpe, Eurobodalla Shire Council, Transcript 948.

[1312] RCN.707.001.0014; NND.001.01220; NND.001.01295; NND.001.00674.

[1313] NND.001.00324; NND.001.00317; NND.600.00093; NND.001.01220; NND.001.01071; NND.001.00957; NND.001.00866; NND.001.00117; NND.001.01344; NND.001.01160; NND.001.00829; NND.001.00816; NND.001.00412.

[1314] NND.600.00093; NND.001.00957; NND.001.00441.01.

[1315] NND.001.00682; NND.001.00957; NND.001.01220; NND.600.00010; NND.600.00056; NND.001.01160; SHC.502.001.0002 16; EGC.502.001.0044; ESC.501.001.0002.

[1316] NND.001.01220.

[1317] NND.001.01295; NND.001.01201; NND.001.00976; NND.001.00772; SRC.500.001.0001.

[1318] NND.001.00459.

[1319] Image from ABC News attributed to Amber Rendell (2 January 2020) <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-02/fears-bushfires-in-north-east-vi…;.

[1320] TSC.500.001.0005.

[1321] NND.001.00692.

[1322] VIC.0011.0001.0001.

[1323] NSW.006.001.0001, 381.

[1324] NND.001.01162.01.

[1325] NND.001.01201; NND.001.01054.

[1327] NND.001.00135.

[1328] NND.001.00607; NND.001.01054; NND.001.00664.

[1329] NSW.009.002.0027; TAS.507.001.0403; NTT.509.001.0050; FEC.219.001.0404; FEC.219.001.0440; FES.005.001.0008; CJN.002.001.0156; SCC.501.001.0280.

[1330] CLQ.001.001.0650.

[1331] NSW.009.002.0027; SWA.006.001.0001; NTT.509.001.0050; SSA.632.001.0062.

[1332] VIC.0011.0001.0001.

[1333] NSW.009.002.0027; SWA.006.001.0001; TAS.507.001.0403; DMC.001.001.0664.

[1334] SSA.632.001.0062.

[1335] NSW.009.002.0027.

[1336] NSW.006.001.0001 – NSW Government, Final Report of the NSW Bushfire Inquiry, (31 July 2020).

[1337] Mr Staples, NSW Department of Transport, Transcript 1282.

[1338] Mr Bascomb, Snowy Monaro Regional Council, Transcript 1022.

[1339] Mr Staples, NSW Department of Transport, Transcript 1282; Mr Stephenson, Emergency Management Victoria, Transcript 1282.

[1340] CLQ.001.001.0650; SWA.006.001.0001; NTT.509.001.0050.

[1341] EGC.503.001.0001.

[1342] JPR.001.002.0001.

[1343] CLQ.001.001.0650.

[1344] Mr McTavish, NSW Cross Border Commissioner, Transcript 1198-1199.

[1345] VIC.0009.0001.0001 – Victorian Inspector-General for Emergency Management, Inquiry into the 2019-20 Victorian Fire Season, Phase 1: Community and Sector Preparedness for and Response to the 2019-20 Fire Season, (2020).

[1346] NSW.009.002.0027.

[1347] NND.001.00777.

[1348] NND.001.01095 1; NND.600.00146 _0004; NND.001.00777; FEC.360.001.0001 – Michael Keelty et al, Independent Review into South Australia’s 2019-20 Bushfire Season, (Government of South Australia, June 2020).; WOL.500.001.0001 22.

[1349] NSW.009.002.0027; SWA.006.001.0001; SSA.632.001.0062.

[1350] VIC.0011.0001.0001; NSW.009.002.0027; SWA.006.001.0001; TAS.507.001.0403.

[1351] VIC.0011.0001.0001; NSW.009.002.0027; SWA.006.001.0001; TAS.507.001.0403; CLQ.001.001.0650; NTT.509.001.0050; SSA.632.001.0062.

Chapter 13 Emergency information and warnings

[1352] FES.005.001.0001.

[1353] HAF.501.001.0001.

[1354] RFS.001.001.0001; RFS.5002.0004.0009.

[1355] FES.005.001.0001.

[1356] PAM.500.001.0115 – Professor McFarlane AO.

[1357] PAM.500.001.0115.

[1358] RCN.900.107.0017 – Joshua Whittaker, Mel Taylor and Christopher Bearman, ‘Why Don’t Bushfire Warnings Work as Intended? Responses to Official Warnings during Bushfires in NSW, Australia’ (2020) 45 International Journal Of Disaster Risk Reduction 2.

[1359] EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[1360] DMC.001.001.1192; RFS.5002.0004.0009; RCN.900.107.0017.

[1361] PAM.500.001.0115; Stuart Ellis, Peter Kanowski and Whelan Rob, National Inquiry on Bushfire Mitigation and Management (Council of Australian Governments, 31 March 2004) <https://www.dfes.wa.gov.au/publications/GeneralReports/FESA_Report-Nati…;; FEC.360.001.0001; NSW.006.001.0001.

[1362] HAF.9002.0001.0002.

[1363] State Emergency and Rescue Management Act 1989 (NSW); Emergency Management Act 1986 (Vic); Disaster Management Act 2003 (Qld); Emergency Management Act 2005 (WA); Emergency Management Act 2004 (SA); Emergency Management Act 2006 (Tas); Emergencies Act 2004 (ACT); Northern Territory Disasters Act 1979; RCN.900.116.0023 – Commonwealth Attorney-General’s Department, ‘Australia’s Emergency Warning Arrangements’ (April 2013).

[1364] State Emergency and Rescue Management Act 1989 (NSW); Emergency Management Act 1986 (Vic); Disaster Management Act 2003 (Qld); Emergency Management Act 2005 (WA); Emergency Management Act 2004 (SA); Emergency Management Act 2006 (Tas); Emergencies Act 2004 (ACT); Northern Territory Disasters Act 1979; RCN.900.116.0023; Ms Carson, Geoscience Australia, Transcript 42.

[1365] BOM.9002.0001.0012; Mr Maguire, Bureau of Meteorology, Transcript 563.

[1366] Figure from Attorney-General’s Department, RCN.900.116.0023.

[1367] Mr Maguire, Bureau of Meteorology, Transcript 568, 577–578; RCN.900.116.0023; HAF.9002.0001.0002; Meteorology Act 1955 (Cth). RCN.900.022.0001.

[1368] Mr Maguire, Bureau of Meteorology, Transcript 577; RCN.900.022.0001; BOM.9002.0001.0012.

[1369] RCN.900.118.0105.

[1370] RCN.900.034.0092; RCN.900.116.0023.

[1371] Bushfire History Project contribution, Rolfe Poole NSW.

[1372] RFS.5002.0004.1074; EMV.0007.0001.0001; RFS.5002.0004.0009; EMV.0005.0001.0068.

[1373] BOM.9002.0003.0003.

[1374] BOM.9004.0001.0001.

[1375] HAF.8001.0001.0001; PMC.0003.0001.0001; AFC.502.001.0998; AFC.503.001.0003; AFC.507.001.0113; AFC.505.001.0343; EMV.0003.0003.0798.

[1376] AFC.503.001.0003; AFC.505.001.0317; AFC.502.001.0998; CSI.508.001.0027.

[1377] AFC.503.001.0003; BOM.9002.0003.0003; PMC.0003.0001.0001.

[1378] CSI.508.001.0027.

[1379] RCN.900.153.0001.

[1380] CSI.508.001.0027.

[1381] Figure from Metrix Consulting presentation, MEG.500.001.0362.

[1382] EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[1383] RCN.900.001.0059 – P O’Donohue and F Dunstan, ‘Australian Fire Danger Rating System - Changing How We Describe and Use Fire Danger Ratings’.

[1384] Participant response to the community research, MEG.500.001.0616.

[1385] RCN.900.001.0059.

[1386] RCN.900.001.0059; RCN.900.107.0001 – Joshua Whittaker, ‘Ten Years after the Black Saturday Fires, What Have We Learnt from Post-Fire Research,’ (2019) 34(2) Australian Journal of Emergency Management.

[1387] MEG.500.001.0362. Research was also undertaken at the state and territory government level: MEG.500.002.0374; MEG.500.002.0280; MEG.500.002.0187; MEG.500.002.0001; MEG.500.002.0094; MEG.500.001.0822; MEG.500.001.0729; MEG.500.001.0636.

[1388] AFC.503.001.0003.

[1389] Appendix 18: Overview of Bushfire Warning System includes the recommended action under each alert level, which varies across states and territories.

[1390] Mr Lollback, Local Government Association of Queensland, Transcript 878.

[1391] Mr Clark, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 1214–1216; Mr Wiebusch, Victoria State Emergency Service, Transcript 2521; Mr Arnol, Tasmanian Department of Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript 2488–2489; Mr Scott, ACT Rural Fire Service, Transcript 2498–2499; Ms Bremner, Bushfires NT, Transcript 2442.

[1392] NND.001.00832.

[1393] Ms Buck, Sunshine Coast Council, Transcript 991.

[1394] Mr Lollback, Local Government Association of Queensland, Transcript 877.

[1395] RCN.001.001.0489. Mr Clark, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 1217–1218.

[1396] Mr Clark, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 1228. AFC.503.001.0003; HAF.0005.0007.0287; HAF.0005.0007.0287.

[1397] AFC.503.001.0003.

[1398] AFC.503.001.0003; AFC.502.001.0998.

[1399] AFC.503.001.0003; EMV.0003.0003.0798.

[1400] AFC.510.001.0001; HAF.0005.0007.0287.

[1401] AFC.503.001.0003; See also AFC.510.001.0001; HAF.0005.0007.0006.

[1402] HAF.0005.0007.0006; AFC.510.001.0001.

[1403] HAF.0005.0001.0013; HAF.0005.0007.0006; MEG.500.001.0616.

[1404] See AFC.503.001.0003; AFC.502.001.0998; EMV.0003.0003.0798.

[1405] HAF.0005.0007.0006; HAF.0005.0001.0013; AFC.503.001.0003.

[1406] SAF.203.002.3525.

[1407] HAF.0005.0007.0287; HAF.0005.0007.0368.

[1408] AFC.510.001.0001. See also HAF.0005.0007.0287; HAF.0005.0007.0360; AFC.510.001.0001.

[1409] AFC.513.001.0128.

[1410] AFC.512.001.0001; AFC.513.001.0130.

[1411] AFC.513.001.0130.

[1412] RCN.900.116.0023.

[1413] EMV.0001.0003.0399; RFS.5002.0004.0009.

[1414] Mr McTavish, NSW Cross Border Commissioner, Transcript 1188-1190; NCB.001.001.0001.

[1415] Mr Wilson, Victorian Cross Border Commissioner, Transcript 1188; JPR.001.002.0011.

[1416] HAF.0003.0001.0584.

[1417] HAF.0003.0001.0584; HAF.9002.0001.0002.

[1418] HAF.8001.0001.0001. See also EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[1419] Mr Darby, K2S Consulting, Transcript 2693–2695; QFS.501.001.0001.

[1420] Mr Darby, K2S Consulting, Transcript 2693–2695; QFS.501.001.0001.

[1421] NSW.011.001.0001; QFS.501.001.0001.

[1422] QFS.501.001.0001.

[1423] Mr Darby, K2S Consulting, Transcript 2693–2695; HAF.9003.0001.0001; HAF.9002.0001.0002; QFS.501.001.0001; HAF.0003.0001.0584.

[1424] HAF.9002.0001.0002; Mr Dawson, Queensland Inspector-General for Emergency Management, Transcript 1598; Mr Darby, K2S Consulting, Transcript 2695; Mr Dawson, Queensland Inspector-General for Emergency Management, Transcript 1598. HAF.0003.0001.0584.

[1425] Mr Darby, K2S Consulting, Transcript 2693–2695. In the interim, the current Emergency Alert System (EAP3) was extended for 12 months to ensure continuity of national emergency alert beyond June 2020, see: HAF.0005.0006.0011.

[1426] HAF.0003.0001.0584.

[1427] HAF.9005.0001.0002.

[1428] ACT, relied on the NSW Fire Near Me app, each state and territory had versions of the app. Queensland SES operates an app for floods and storms, but uses a website feed for fire information from the QLDFES.

[1429] EMV.0010.0001.0001.

[1430] Mr Clark, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 1221; Ms Fitzgerald, Emergency Management Victoria, Transcript 1220; EMV.0010.0001.0001.

[1431] Ms Fitzgerald, Emergency Management Victoria, Transcript 1220; NND.001.00609.

[1432] Mr Morris, Bushfire.Io, Transcript 2365; Ms Fitzgerald, Emergency Management Victoria, Transcript 1235.

[1433] SAF.203.004.0017; BFI.501.001.0001; Mr Morris, Bushfire.Io, Transcript 2364.

[1434] Ms Fitzgerald, Emergency Management Victoria, EMV.0010.0001.0001; Mr Clark, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 1223–1225; BFI.501.001.0001.

[1435] Bushfire History Project contribution, Dylan Brandon NSW.

[1436] Bushfire History Project contribution, Kristen Pearce VIC.

[1437] NND.600.00282; NND.600.00348; NND.001.00039; NND.001.01153; FEC.360.001.0001; NND.600.00011. NND.600.00011.

[1438] EMV.0010.0001.0001; NND.600.00348; NND.001.00258; NND.001.00169; NND.001.00071; NND.600.00011.

[1439] Mr Bascomb, Snowy Monaro Regional Council, Transcript 1021.

[1440] NND.001.00182.

[1441] Mr Clark, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 1223–1225; BFI.501.001.0001; Submission NND.600.00391; NND.001.00506; Mr Bascomb, Snowy Monaro Regional Council, Transcript 1026.

[1442] Mr Hyde, Snowy Valley Council, Transcript 1020.

[1443] Commissioner Rogers, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 1221.

[1444] Mr Hyde, Snowy Valley Council, Transcript 1020; EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[1445] EMV.0010.0001.0001; ESA.505.001.3659; NSW.006.001.0001.

[1446] Mr Clark, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 1238–39; HAF.9005.0001.0002.

[1447] RFS.003.001.0001.

[1448] RFS.003.001.0001; BFI.501.001.0001; Mr Morris, Bushfire.Io, Transcript 2364.

[1449] Mr Morris, Bushfire.Io, Transcript 2364; NND.600.00011.

[1450] SSA.900.001.0003.

[1451] Commissioner Rogers, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 1224.

[1452] NSW.900.001.0003.

[1453] Ms Fitzgerald, Emergency Management Victoria, Transcript 1225.

[1454] ESA.502.001.0117.

[1455] For example, NSW Government, NSW.006.001.0001 –Final Report of the NSW Bushfire Inquiry (31 July 2020); ESA.505.001.3659.

[1456] CMA.8001.0001.0001.

[1457] NND.001.00282; NND.001.00570; Major General Peter Dunn (Retd), ACT Emergency Services Authority, Transcript 1494.

[1458] ABC.500.001.0041. Despite being designed to withstand temperatures of 800 degrees Celsius and being elevated 70 metres from the ground, the cables depicted were still overwhelmed by the heat of the bushfire.

[1459] Mr Fisher, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Transcript 2348–2358.

[1460] ABC.500.001.0041.

[1461] ABC.500.001.0041.

[1462] NND.001.01143.

[1463] ABC.500.001.0041.

[1464] ABC.500.001.0041.

[1465] Mr Windebank, Community Witness, Transcript 1173.

[1466] Major General Peter Dunn (Retd), ACT Emergency Services Authority, Transcript (n 99) 1494.

[1467] NND.600.00266.

[1468] NND.600.00266.

[1469] ABC.500.001.0041.

[1470] AFC.505.001.0317; NND.001.01143.

[1471] ABC.500.001.0041.

[1472] VIC.900.001.0001; TAS.900.001.0003.

[1473] TAS.900.001.0003; SSA.900.001.0003; CLQ.003.001.0001.

[1474] CTH.900.001.0001.

[1475] VIC.900.001.0001; TAS.900.001.0003; SSA.900.001.0003; CLQ.003.001.0001; ACT.900.001.0001; SWA.007.001.0002. Victorian and Queensland Government Responses to Propositions did not support the Proposition but supported improved engagement. WA, SA, ACT, NSW and Tasmania supported the proposition in principle.

Chapter 14 Air quality

[1476] RCN.900.131.0018; DFJ.501.001.0001.

[1477] RCN.900.131.0018;RCN.900.003.0348; CSI.508.001.0027; DFJ.502.001.0001.

[1478] ENH.500.001.0008.

[1479] DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research.

[1480] DFJ.502.001.0001; DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research; RCN.900.131.0018; ENH.500.001.0008.

[1481] United States Environmental Protection Agency, ‘Particular Matter (PM) Pollution’ (1 October 2020) <https://www.epa.gov/pm-pollution/particulate-matter-pm-basics&gt;.

[1482] DFJ.502.001.0001; DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research.

[1483] DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research; RCN.900.131.0018; ENH.500.001.0008.

[1484] DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research; RCN.900.131.0018; DFJ.502.001.0001; NND.001.00284.

[1485] DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research.

[1486] Figure from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Worldview, RCN.900.118.0075.

[1487] Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research, Transcript 101.

[1488] DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research; Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research, Transcript 103; RCN.900.154.0001.

[1489] AAU.500.001.0039 – Ms Goldman, Asthma Australia; AAU.500.001.0033.

[1490] NND.800.200.00067.

[1492] Victorian Chief Health Officer, The November 2016 Victorian Epidemic Thunderstorm Asthma Event: An Assessment of the Health Impacts, April 2017, <https://www2.health.vic.gov.au/Api/downloadmedia/%7B459A8B36-7C70-4C0E-861E-C648BBF4C818%7D>.

[1493] Inspector-General Emergency Management Victoria, Review of Response to the Thunderstorm Asthma Event of 21-22 November 2016 - Final Report, April 2017, <https://www.igem.vic.gov.au/our-work/evaluation-and-review/review-of-the-thunderstorm-asthma-emergency-response>.

[1494] NND.800.001.00087.01.

[1495] RCN.900.075.0231.

[1496] NND.800.200.00043.

[1497] National Environment Protection (Ambient Air Quality) Measure - Schedule 2.

[1498] WEW.001.001.0004; PIN.002.002.0001; National Environment Protection (Ambient Air Quality) Measure Schedule 3.

[1499] EPV.0001.0001.0001.

[1500] EPV.0001.0001.0001.

[1501] EPV.0001.0001.0001.

[1502] NND.001.01122.

[1503] PIN.002.002.0001; EPS.388.001.0001; ESQ.002.001.0050.

[1504] National Environment Protection (Ambient Air Quality) Measure Schedule 2.

[1505] AHD.500.001.0001.

[1506] EPV.0001.0001.0001.

[1507] ESQ.002.001.0050.

[1508] EPS.388.001.0001.

[1509] TAS.507.001.0403.

[1510] RCN.900.118.0020.

[1511] National Environment Protection Council, ‘Variation to the Ambient Air Quality NEPM - Particles Standards’ (2015) <http://www.nepc.gov.au/resource/variation-ambient-air-quality-nepm-%E2%…;.

[1512] CTH.900.001.0001

[1513] National Environment Protection Council, ‘Proposed Variation to the National Environment Protection (Ambient Air Quality) Measure Standards for Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide’ <http://www.nepc.gov.au/nepms/ambient-air-quality/proposed-variation/con…;.

[1514] CTH.900.001.0001.

[1515] DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research.

[1516] NND.800.001.00087.01; NND.001.00436.

[1517] PIN.002.002.0035.

[1518] PIN.002.002.0035; TAS.507.001.0403.

[1519] DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research.

[1520] AHD.500.001.0001.

[1521] EPS.388.001.0001. The trigger levels in the figure are presented in µg/m3. However, some jurisdictions express this as an Air Quality Index in public reporting. Ratings for ‘ACT (24HR)’ is based on Health Advice for Smoky Air, <https://www.health.act.gov.au/about-our-health-system/population-health/environmental-monitoring/monitoring-and-regulating-air-0>. Ratings for ‘VIC (24HR) is based on Standard for Smoke, Air Quality and Community Health (Version 2.0) 2019 and trigger advice from Chief Health Officer for temporary relocations if PM2.5 are predicted or are >250 µg/m3 for two consecutive days.

[1522] DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research.

[1523] NND.800.001.00087.01; DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research.

[1524] DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research.

[1525] PIN.002.002.0001, PIN.002.002.0035, PIN.002.002.0032; DHN.500.001.0237.

[1526] EPS.388.001.0001; DHW.455.011.0001; PIN.002.002.0035

[1527] NND.800.200.00067; EPV.0001.0001.0001; PIN.002.002.0035.

[1528] EPV.0001.0001.0001; TAS.507.001.0403.

[1529] NND.800.001.00087.01.

[1530] DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research.

[1531] NND.800.200.00063; WEW.001.001.0004.

[1532] EPS.388.001.0001.

[1533] DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research; ENH.500.001.0011.

[1534] EPS.388.001.0001; ENH.500.001.0011.

[1535] DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research.

[1536] RCN.900.118.0076.

[1537] AHD.500.001.0001; PIN.002.002.0001.

[1538] ENH.500.001.0011. The timing for consideration of the one hour reporting framework for PM2.5, by the AHPPC is yet to be determined.

[1539] PIN.002.002.0035.

[1540] NTH.500.001.0001; WAH.001.001.0001; DHQ.001.001.0005; DHN.500.001.0237; DHW.455.011.0001.

[1541] PIN.002.002.0001.

[1542] DHQ.001.001.0404.

[1543] AHD.500.001.0001.

[1544] PMC.0003.0001.0001; NND.800.001.00082.01; NND.800.001.00109.

[1545] NND.800.001.00084.01; NND.800.200.00063; NND.800.200.00067.

[1546] AHD.500.001.0001; NND.800.200.00067; NND.800.001.00087.01; DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research.

[1547] ESQ.002.001.0050.

[1548] WAH.001.001.0001.

[1550] DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research.

[1551] DHW.455.011.0001; DHQ.001.001.0005; NTH.500.001.0001; DHHS.0002.0001.0021; DHN.500.001.0237..

[1552] PIN.002.002.0017.

[1553] RCN.900.075.0212 2016.

[1554] DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research.

[1555] NND.800.001.00082.01; Commissioner Rogers, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 730.

[1556] NND.800.001.00082.01.

[1557] RMIT ABC Fact Check, Are Hazard Reduction Burns Effective in Managing Bushfires? The Answer Is Complicated, ABC News, 20 December 2019, <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-12-20/hazard-reduction-burns-bushfires/11817336> (Picture: Ian Dicker).

[1558] Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research, Transcript 104; NND.800.001.00082.01.

[1559] NND.800.001.00085.01; NND.800.001.00082.01; DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research.

[1560] DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research; Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research, Transcript 106.

[1561] NND.800.200.00064.

[1562] CTH.900.001.0001; NSW.900.001.0003; SSA.900.001.0003; CLQ.003.001.0001; SWA.007.001.0002; TAS.900.001.0003; NTT.900.001.0003; ACT.900.001.0001.

[1563] Susan Stone et al, Wildfire Smoke: A Guide for Public Health Officials, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment; U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention; U.S. Forest Service and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, August 2019, <https://www.airnow.gov/publications/wildfire-smoke-guide/wildfire-smoke-a-guide-for-public-health-officials/>.

[1564] NND.800.200.00063.

[1565] NND.800.200.00067.

[1566] NND.800.200.00064.

[1567] NND.800.001.00084.01; DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research.

[1568] DHQ.001.001.0005.

[1569] PIN.002.002.0001.

[1570] EPV.0001.0001.0001.

[1571] PIN.002.002.0001; ESQ.002.001.0050; WEW.001.001.0004; AHD.500.001.0001.

[1572] PIN.002.002.0001; EPV.0001.0001.0001; EPS.388.001.0001.

[1573] DFJ.501.001.0001 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research; NND.800.001.00079.

[1574] PIN.002.002.0001; EPV.0001.0001.0001; ESQ.002.001.0050; NEP.500.001.0012; EPS.388.001.0001.

[1575] NND.800.200.00063; NND.800.001.00079; PIN.002.002.0001.

[1576] ESQ.002.001.0050.

[1577] ESQ.002.001.0050.

[1578] NND.800.001.00079.

[1579] EPV.0001.0001.0001; NEP.500.001.0012.

[1580] NND.800.001.00085.01; NND.800.001.00082.01.

[1581] PMC.0003.0001.0001.

[1582] Dr Metcalfe, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Transcript 545-546.

[1583] EPV.0001.0001.0001.

[1584] CSI.508.001.0027.

[1585] NND.300.003.0003; VIC.900.001.0001.

[1586] CSI.501.001.0001; BOM.9003.0001.0001.

[1587] SSA.900.001.0003; VIC.900.001.0001; NND.300.004.0004; NND.300.005.0019; NND.300.003.0003; BOM.9003.0001.0001.

[1588] Sophie Schmidt, Air Quality: How We’re Minimising Smoke Impact, CSIROscope, 14 January 2020, <https://blog.csiro.au/air-quality-how-were-minimising-smoke-impact/>.

[1589] RCN.900.131.0018; NND.800.001.00085.01; AAU.500.001.0039 – Ms Goldman, Asthma Australia; DFJ.501.001.0001; NND.800.001.00082.01; NND.800.200.00045; NND.800.200.00043.

[1590] NND.800.001.00087.01; NND.800.200.00064; NND.800.001.0008.

[1591] PIN.002.002.0001.

[1592] PIN.002.002.0001.

[1593] PIN.002.002.0127; PIN.002.002.0001.

[1594] PIN.002.002.0001.

[1595] PIN.002.002.0001.

[1596] PIN.002.002.0127.

[1597] NSW Department of Planning, Industry and Environment, Air Quality Forecast: Sydney Metropolitan Region, 2 January 2020, <https://web.archive.org/web/20200123033345/https:/www.dpie.nsw.gov.au/air-quality/sydney-forecast> (screenshot from the NSW Department of Planning, Industry and Environment website).

[1598] HEA.9002.0001.0001; HEA.9001.0002.0001.

Chapter 15 Health

[1600] PBU.500.001.0047 – Dr Burns, General Practitioner.

[1601] NND.600.00090; Australian Academy of Health and Medical Sciences, The Australian Bushfires: Impacts on Health - the Evidence (April 2020) <https://aahms.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/The-Australian-Bushfires-a…;.

[1602] NND.800.001.00073.01, RCN.900.131.0018.

[1603] DFJ.501.001.0001.0006 – Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research; Associate Professor Johnston, Menzies Institute for Medical Research, Transcript 100‑104.

[1604] Katarzyna Alderman, Lyle Turner and Shilu Tong, ‘Assessment of the Health Impacts of the 2011 Summer Floods in Brisbane’ (2013) 7(4) Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 380–386, <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258525799_Assessment_of_the_Health_Impacts_of_the_2011_Summer_Floods_in_Brisbane>; Dr Burns, Transcript 96.

[1605] PBU.500.001.0047 – Dr Burns, General Practitioner.

[1606] NND.001.01013.05.

[1607] RCN.900.075.0001.

[1608] NND.800.001.00073.01; NND.001.01013.05.

[1609] AHH.500.001.0001.

[1610] PBU.500.001.0047 – Dr Burns, General Practitioner.

[1611] Commonwealth Department of Health, ‘The Australian Health System’ <https://www.health.gov.au/about-us/the-australian-health-system&gt;.

[1612] Local Hospital Networks are state and territory authorities set up to manage public hospital services and funding. The names for Local Hospital Networks vary across state and territory governments. For example, Local Hospital Networks are known as Local Health Districts in NSW and Hospital and Health Services in Queensland.

[1613] RCN.900.076.0024.

[1614] HEA.9001.0002.0001.

[1615] WAH.001.001.0008.

[1616] HEA.9001.0002.0001.

[1617] Professor Murphy, Department of Health, Transcript 2583; HEA.9001.0002.0001.

[1618] HEA.9001.0002.0001.

[1619] DHN.500.001.0237; DHHS.0002.0001.0001.

[1620] Kate McIlwain, Health authorities to issue coronavirus update as NSW cases increase, 5 March 2020, <https://www.illawarramercury.com.au/story/6662385/health-authorities-to-issue-coronavirus-update-as-nsw-cases-increase/> (Picture: Sitthixay Ditthavong).

[1621] Professor Murphy, Commonwealth Department of Health, Transcript 2583.

[1622] Professor Murphy, Commonwealth Department of Health, Transcript 2589-2590; HEA.9001.0002.0001. On 21 January 2020, the Biosecurity (Listed Human Diseases) Amendment Determination 2020 was made by Professor Murphy, as the Director of Human Biosecurity under the Biosecurity Act, adding the human coronavirus with pandemic potential to the listed human diseases: RCN.900.105.0007. On 18 March 2020, a Biosecurity (Human Biosecurity Emergency) (Human Coronavirus with Pandemic Potential) Declaration was made: RCN.900.105.0001.

[1623] HEA.9001.0002.0001.

[1624] HEA.0001.0001.0004.

[1625] Professor Murphy, Commonwealth Department of Health, Transcript 2584.

[1626] Professor Murphy, Commonwealth Department of Health, Transcript 2584.

[1627] HAF.8001.0001.0001.

[1628] WAH.001.001.0008.

[1629] HEA.9001.0002.0001; NCC.500.001.0001.

[1630] Professor Murphy, Commonwealth Department of Health, Transcript 2583.

[1631] MDH.502.001.0001.

[1632] Professor Murphy, Commonwealth Department of Health, Transcript 2595.

[1633] HEA.0001.0001.0007; HEA.0001.0001.0004; HEA.0001.0001.0001.

[1634] NND.800.200.00045.

[1635] NND.800.200.00067.

[1636] SSA.901.001.0054.

[1637] SSA.901.001.0047.

[1638] PMC.8003.0001.0003.

[1639] HEA.9001.0002.0001.

[1640] HEA.9001.0002.0001.

[1641] NND.800.200.00064; NND.800.001.00082.01; NND.800.200.00042.01.

[1642] HEA.9001.0002.0001.

[1643] NCC.500.001.0001.

[1644] HEA.9001.0002.0001.

[1645] HEA.9001.0002.0001; NCC.500.001.0001.

[1646] NCC.500.001.0001.

[1647] HEA.9001.0002.0001.

[1648] NCC.500.001.0001.

[1649] NCC.500.001.0001.

[1650] NCC.500.001.0001.

[1651] NCC.500.001.0001.

[1652] NCC.500.001.0001.

[1653] Image from ABC News (7 September 2019) <https://www.abc.net.au/cm/rimage/11489190-16x9-xlarge.jpg?v=2>.

[1654] HEA.9001.0002.0001; NCC.500.001.0001; NND.800.200.00067.

[1655] National Critical Care and Trauma Response Centre Facebook page, 10 January 2020.

[1656] National Critical Care and Trauma Response Centre Facebook page, 8 January 2020.

[1657] NCC.500.001.0001.

[1658] NCC.500.001.0001.

[1659] EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[1660] NCC.500.001.0001.

[1661] NCC.500.001.0001.

[1662] NCC.500.001.0001.

[1663] NCC.500.001.0001.

[1664] SSA.901.001.0047.

[1665] NSW.900.001.0003; SSA.900.001.0003; CLQ.003.001.0001; VIC.900.001.0001; TAS.900.001.0003; NTT.900.001.0003; ACT.900.001.0001; SWA.007.001.0002.

[1666] AHD.500.001.0001; DHN.500.001.0237; DHQ.001.001.0005; DHW.455.011.0001; WAH.001.001.0001; DHHS.0002.0001.0001; NTH.500.001.0001.

[1667] DHN.500.001.0237; DHQ.001.001.0005; DHW.455.011.0001.

[1668] DHQ.001.001.0005; DHN.500.001.0237.

[1669] DHW.455.011.0001.

[1670] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Australia’s Health 2018: In Brief <https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2018-in-brief/contents/about>

[1671] HEA.9001.0002.0001; NND.800.001.00108.01; NND.800.001.00062.01.

[1672] NND.800.001.00081.01.

[1673] MDH.502.001.0001.

[1674] RCN.900.076.0001’.

[1675] Dr Burns, General Practitioner, Transcript 97.

[1676] NND.800.001.00108.01; HEA.9001.0002.0001.

[1677] NND.800.001.00062.01; PBU.500.001.0047.

[1678] NND.800.001.00009.

[1679] NND.800.200.00042.01.

[1680] NND.001.00522.

[1681] NND.800.200.00067; HEA.9001.0002.0001; NND.800.200.00043.

[1682] NND.001.00522.

[1683] Dr Burns, General Practitioner, Transcript 96.

[1684] PBU.500.001.0047 – Dr Burns, General Practitioner.

[1685] NND.800.001.00054; NND.001.00522; NND.800.001.00073.01; NND.800.001.00081.01.

[1686] NND.800.001.00069.01; NND.800.001.00108.01.

[1687] PBU.500.001.0047 – Dr Burns, General Practitioner.

[1688] PBU.500.001.0047 – Dr Burns, General Practitioner.

[1689] DHN.500.001.0237.

[1690] HEA.9001.0002.0001; DHQ.001.001.0005; NND.800.200.00045; DHN.500.001.0237; NND.800.200.00067.

[1691] NND.800.001.00065; NND.800.001.00072; NND.800.001.00108.01; NND.800.001.00109; NND.800.001.00081.

[1692] NND.800.200.00067; DHW.455.011.0001.

[1693] AHD.500.001.0001.

[1694] NND.800.200.00064; NND.800.001.00074.01.

[1695] HEA.9001.0002.0001.

[1696] DHHS.0002.0001.0001.

[1697] AHD.500.001.0001.

[1698] NND.800.200.00045.

[1699] NND.800.001.00084.01; NND.800.001.00062.01; NND.800.001.00073.01; NND.800.001.00081.01.

[1700] VIC.900.001.0001.

[1701] VIC.900.001.0001.

[1702] PBU.500.001.0047 – Dr Burns, General Practitioner.

[1703] NND.800.200.00064; NND.800.001.00074.01.

[1704] NND.800.001.00077; DHQ.001.001.0005.

[1705] HEA.9001.0002.0001; DHN.500.001.0237.

[1706] AHH.500.001.0001; NND.800.001.00082.01; NND.800.001.00109; NND.001.00695.

[1707] NND.800.001.00064; NND.800.001.00073.01; NND.800.001.00109; NND.800.200.00042.01.

[1708] HEA.9001.0002.0001.

[1709] National Health (Continued Dispensing - Emergency Measures) Determination 2020.

[1710] HEA.9001.0002.0001.

[1711] Commonwealth Department of Health, ‘Expansion of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme Continued Dispensing Arrangements Covid-19’, The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (March 2020) <https://www.pbs.gov.au/pbs/news/2020/03/continued-dispensing-arrangemen…;.

[1712] Therapeutic Goods Administration, ‘No Shortage of Salbutamol Asthma Inhalers’ (Media Release, 10 January 2020) <https://www.Tga.Gov.Au/Media-Release/No-Shortage-Salbutamol-Asthma-Inha…;.

[1713] HEA.9001.0002.0001.

[1714] NND.600.00090.

[1715] Ms Rishniw, Department of Health, Transcript 2591.

[1716] HEA.9001.0002.0001.

[1717] Commonwealth Department of Health, ‘Additional COVID-19 mental health support for people subjected to further restrictions’ (2 August 2020) <https://www.health.gov.au/news/additional-covid-19-mental-health-suppor…;

[1718] The Hon Greg Hunt MP, ‘Budget 2020-21: Record health and aged care investment under Australia’s COVID-19 pandemic plan’ (Media release, 6 October 2020) <https://www.health.gov.au/ministers/the-hon-greg-hunt-mp/media/budget-2020-21-record-health-and-aged-care-investment-under-australias-covid-19-pandemic-plan>

[1720] HEA.9001.0002.0001.

[1721] NND.800.001.00054; NND.800.001.00081.01; NND.800.200.00063.

[1722] AHH.500.001.0001.

[1723] NND.800.200.00061.01.

[1724] NND.800.001.00082.01.

[1725] NND.800.001.00082.01.

[1726] Katarzyna Alderman, Lyle Turner and Shilu Tong, ‘Assessment of the Health Impacts of the 2011 Summer Floods in Brisbane’ (2013) 7(4) Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 380–386, <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258525799_Assessment_of_the_Health_Impacts_of_the_2011_Summer_Floods_in_Brisbane>

[1727] Lyle Turner et al, ‘Impact of the 2011 Queensland Floods on the Use of Tobacco, Alcohol and Medication’ (2013) 37(4) Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. <https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1753-6405.12093>

[1728] MDH.500.001.0027.

[1729] MDH.500.001.0060.

[1730] The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, ‘Addressing the Mental Health Impacts of Natural Disasters and Climate Change-Related Weather Events’ (January 2020) <https://www.ranzcp.org/news-policy/policy-and-advocacy/position-stateme…;.

[1731] PAM.500.001.0115 – Professor McFarlane AO, The University of Adelaide.

[1732] RCN.702.000.0003; Ms Paterson, Community Witness, Transcript 233, RCN.500.001.2316.

[1733] PAM.500.001.0115 – Professor McFarlane AO, The University of Adelaide.

[1734] Professor Gibbs, University of Melbourne, Transcript 90.

[1735] PAM.500.001.0115 – Professor McFarlane AO, The University of Adelaide.

[1736] AAU.500.001.0033; AAU.500.001.0039.

[1737] NND.600.00090.

[1738] PAM.500.001.0115 – Professor McFarlane AO, The University of Adelaide.

[1739] RCN.900.075.0077.

[1740] Rebekah Doley, Ryan Bell and Bruce Watt, ‘An Investigation Into the Relationship Between Long-Term Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Coping in Australian Volunteer Firefighters’ (2016) 204(7) J Nerve Ment Dis. 530-536, <https://research.bond.edu.au/en/publications/an-investigation-into-the-relationship-between-long-term-posttrau>

[1741] NND.001.00325.01.

[1742] Richard Bryant et al, ‘Psychological Outcomes Following the Victorian Black Saturday Bushfires’ (2014) 48(7) Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. <https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0004867414534476>

[1743] MDH.500.001.0060.

[1744] PAM.500.001.0115 – Professor McFarlane AO, The University of Adelaide.

[1745] PAM.500.001.0115 – Professor McFarlane AO, The University of Adelaide.

[1746] DHN.500.001.0237.

[1747] NND.800.200.00061.01.

[1748] AHD.500.001.0001.

[1749] World Health Organization, Mental Health in Emergencies, 11 June 2019, <https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/mental-health-in-emergencies>; Black Dog Institute, Mental Health Interventions Following Disasters, February 2020, <https://www.blackdoginstitute.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/mental-health-interventions-following-disasters-black-dog-institute-february-2020.pdf?sfvrsn=0>.

[1750] Professor Murphy, Department of Health, Transcript 2592

[1751] Ms Rishniw, Department of Health, Transcript 2591.

[1752] NND.800.200.00061.01.

[1753] PAM.500.001.0115 – Professor McFarlane AO, The University of Adelaide.

[1754] DHN.500.001.0237.

[1755] PAM.500.001.0115 – Professor McFarlane AO, The University of Adelaide.

[1756] NND.800.200.00067.

[1757] PAM.500.001.0115 – Professor McFarlane AO, The University of Adelaide.

[1758] MDH.500.001.0027.

[1759] DHW.455.011.0001.

[1760] HEA.9001.0002.0001; PAM.500.001.0115 – Professor McFarlane AO, The University of Adelaide.

[1761] Professor Gibbs, University of Melbourne, Transcript 99.

[1763] DHW.455.011.0001.

[1764] DHW.455.011.0001.

[1765] PAM.500.001.0115 – Professor McFarlane AO, The University of Adelaide.

[1766] DHW.455.011.0001.

[1767] DHW.455.011.0001.

[1768] DHW.455.011.0001.

[1769] DHW.455.011.0001.

[1770] NND.800.200.00067.

[1771] PAM.500.001.0115 – Professor McFarlane AO, The University of Adelaide; Suzanna Rose et al, ‘Psychological Debriefing for Preventing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)’ [2002] (2) John Wiley & Sons.<https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD000560/full>

[1772] Victorian Departments of Health and Human Services, DHHS.0002.0001.0001; ‘South Australian Department of Health, DHW.455.011.0001.

[1773] NSW Department of Health, DHN.500.001.0237.

[1775] Professor Gibbs, University of Melbourne, Transcript 93.

[1776] MDH.500.001.0001 – Professor Gibbs, University of Melbourne.

[1777] NND.800.200.00067.

[1778] DHW.455.011.0001.

[1780] DHQ.001.001.0005.

[1781] NSW.009.002.0043.

[1782] DHHS.0002.0001.0001.

[1783] PMC.8001.0001.0449; NND.800.200.00061.01.

[1784] DHHS.0002.0001.0001.

[1785] PAM.500.001.0115 – Professor McFarlane AO, The University of Adelaide.

[1786] NND.800.200.00067.

[1787] VIC.900.001.0001.

[1788] AHH.500.001.0001.

[1789] AHH.500.001.0001.

[1790] NND.800.001.00054.

[1791] NND.800.200.00045.

[1792] NND.600.00090; AHH.500.001.0001.

[1793] AHH.500.001.0001; NND.800.200.00045.

[1794] NSW.900.001.0003; SSA.900.001.0003; CLQ.003.001.0001; VIC.900.001.0001; TAS.900.001.0003; NTT.900.001.0003; ACT.900.001.0001; SWA.007.001.0002; CTH.900.001.0001

[1795] Image from ABC News attributed to Tynan King (9 January 2020) <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-09/doctor-practices-from-caravan-after-losing-surgery-in-bushfire/11855806>.

Chapter 16 Wildlife and heritage

[1796] DSB.501.001.0001.

[1797] Steffen W, Burbidge A, Hughes L, Kitching R, Lindenmayer D, Musgrave W, Stafford Smith M, Werner P. Australia’s biodiversity and climate change. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Climate Change, 2009.

[1798] PCD.500.001.0001; Dr Box, Threatened Species Commissioners, Transcript 177.

[1799] Ian Cresswell and Helen Murphy, Australia State of the Environment 2016: Biodiversity (Department of the Environment and Energy, 2017).

[1800] Dr Box, Threatened Species Commissioner, Transcript 175–76; Ian Cresswell and Helen Murphy, Australia State of the Environment 2016: Biodiversity (Department of the Environment and Energy, 2017).

[1801] PCD.500.001.0001; Ian Cresswell and Helen Murphy, Australia State of the Environment 2016: Biodiversity (Department of the Environment and Energy, 2017).

[1802] Commonwealth of Australia, 2018. ‘Protection of Australia’s Commemorative Places and Monuments’.
<https://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/4474fb91-bd90-4424-b671-9e2ab9c39cca/files/protection-australia-commemorative-places-monuments.pdf>

[1803] DSB.501.001.0049.

[1804] PCD.500.001.0001.

[1805] AWE.9001.0001.0001.

[1806] Known as ‘Ramsar Wetlands’, these are wetlands that have been identified as ecologically significant under the 1971 Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (‘Ramsar Convention’).

[1807] Professor Possingham, University of Queensland, PHP.500.001.0001.

[1808] Professor Dickman, University of Sydney, PCD.500.001.0001; AWE.8001.0001.0001.

[1809] Dr Box, Threatened Species Commissioner, Transcript 184.

[1810] PCD.500.001.0001.

[1811] PCD.500.001.0001; PHP.500.001.0001.

[1812] Copyright Gunditj Mirring Traditional Owners (image pre-fires)

[1813] DELW.501.001.0004

[1815] Image from ABC News attributed to Alison Branley (2017) <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-01-08/sphagnum-bog/8141878>

[1816] RSP.500.001.0002.

[1817] Dr Westcott, South Australian Veterinary Emergency Management, Transcript 2280.

[1818] WHA.500.001.0012.

[1819] PIN.501.001.0211.

[1820] EPA.500.001.0002 001.

[1821] EPA.500.001.1096

[1822] EPA.500.001.0904.

[1823] EPA.500.001.1096

[1824] EPA.500.001.1096

[1825] WHA.500.001.0012.

[1826] WHA.500.001.0012.

[1827] WHA.500.001.0012.

[1828] Dr Westcott, South Australian Veterinary Emergency Management, Transcript 2282.

[1829] Ms Taylor, NSW Wildlife Information, Rescue and Education Service, Transcript 2284.

[1830] WPA.500.001.0001

[1831] Dr Westcott, South Australian Veterinary Emergency Management, Transcript 2282.

[1832] Ms Taylor, NSW Wildlife Information, Rescue and Education Service, Transcript 2284.

[1833] WPA.500.001.0001

[1834] AWE.502.001.0006.

[1835] AWE.502.001.0006.

[1836] DSB.501.001.0049.

[1837] DSB.501.001.0049.

[1838] DSB.501.001.0049.

[1839] DSB.501.001.0001 – Dr Box, Threatened Species Commissioner.

[1840] DSB.501.001.0049.

[1841] DSB.501.001.0049.

[1842] DSB.501.001.0001.

[1843] AWE.502.001.0006.

[1844] Graeme Samuel, Independent Review of the EPBC Act - Interim Report (Department Agriculture, Water and the Environment, June 2020).

[1845] AWE.502.001.0006.

[1846] Graeme Samuel, Independent Review of the EPBC Act - Interim Report (Department Agriculture, Water and the Environment, June 2020).

[1847] PHP.500.001.0001.

[1848] Environment Protection and Biodiversity Regulations 2000, 7.01

[1849] Graeme Samuel, Independent Review of the EPBC Act - Interim Report (Department Agriculture, Water and the Environment, June 2020).

[1850] Ms Campbell, Commonwealth Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Transcript 164.

[1851] Ms Campbell, Commonwealth Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Transcript 169.

[1852] Graeme Samuel, Independent Review of the EPBC Act - Interim Report (Department Agriculture, Water and the Environment, June 2020) 20-21

[1853] AWE.502.001.0006.

[1854] Ms Campbell, Commonwealth Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Transcript 165

[1855] Australian Government Department of the Environment and Energy, 2018 assessment priorities for threatened species, ecological communities and key threatening processes <https://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/181015.pdf>; Ms Campbell, Commonwealth Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Transcript 165.

Chapter 17 Public and private land management

[1856] Geoscience Australia, Dimensions <https://www.ga.gov.au/scientific-topics/national-location-information/d…; note: includes mainland and island Australia

[1857] Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, Australia’s Forests at a Glance 2019: With Data to 2017-18, 2019 <https://www.agriculture.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/Forests_at…;.

[1859] Ian Cresswell and Helen Murphy, Australia State of the Environment 2016 (Department of the Environment and Energy, 2017) <https://soe.environment.gov.au/theme/land>

[1860] Map from <https://www.climateworksaustralia.org/land-use-futures/australias-land-use/>. The map uses data courtesy of CSIRO. ‘Other’ includes defence land, stock routes, residual native cover, mining and waste areas, water bodies and land under rehabilitation.

[1861] Ian Cresswell and Helen Murphy, Australia State of the Environment 2016 (Department of the Environment and Energy, 2017) <https://soe.environment.gov.au/theme/land>

[1862] NND.001.01335.

[1863] NND.001.01335.

[1864] See, eg NND.001.01335. Mr Choveaux, Rural Fire Brigades Association Queensland, Transcript 1433.

[1865] RCN.900.153.0162; RCN.900.153.0008.

[1866] See, eg RCN.900.142.0383 – Rosemary Hill et al, Indigenous Land Management in Australia: Extent, Scope, Diversity, Barriers and Success Factors (CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences); Ian Cresswell and Helen Murphy, Australia State of the Environment 2016 (Department of the Environment and Energy, 2017) <https://soe.environment.gov.au/theme/land>

[1867] Ian Cresswell and Helen Murphy, Australia State of the Environment 2016 (Department of the Environment and Energy, 2017) <https://soe.environment.gov.au/theme/land>

[1868] Ms Campbell, Commonwealth Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Transcript 160; National parks are Booderee, Christmas Island, Kakadu, Norfolk Island, Pulu Keeling, Uluru-Kata Tjuta.

[1869] Mr Baulch, Bushfires NT, Transcript 737.

[1871] Map from Western Australian Land Information Authority, BCA.502.001.0001. Map produced using the Western Australian Land Information Authority archive of NOAA/AVHRR Fire Burnt Area (FBA) satellite data mapped at 1km resolution for period January 1988 to September 2020). Ian Cresswell and Helen Murphy, Australia State of the Environment 2016 (Department of the Environment and Energy, 2017) <https://soe.environment.gov.au/theme/land>.

[1872] Based on National Forest Inventory classifications for ‘multiple-use public forest’ and ‘nature conservation reserve’.

[1873] Based on National Forest Inventory classifications for ‘private forest’ and ‘leasehold forest’.

[1874] Based on National Forest Inventory classifications for ‘other crown land’ and ‘unresolved tenure’.

[1875] Chart created using ABARES data, AWE.9003.0001.0001.

[1876] Associate Professor Tolhurst, University of Melbourne, Transcript 621, 623.

[1877] See, eg Professor Bowman, University of Tasmania, Transcript 640; Associate Professor Tolhurst, University of Melbourne, Transcript 625, 640, 642; Professor Bradstock, Centre for Environmental Risk Management of Bushfire, University of Wollongong, Transcript 623, 625, 640.

[1878] See, eg EMV.0005.0001.0068; RFS.002.001.0001; ENN.500.001.0032. Mr Hardman, Forest Fire Management Victoria, Transcript 668; Commissioner Rogers, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 706; Mr Cooper, ACT Parks and Conservations Service, Transcript 710; Mr De Haan, Western Australian Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Transcript 711, 722; Mr Baulch, Bushfires NT, Transcript 724; Mr Vea, Northern Territory Department of Tourism, Sport and Culture, Transcript 726; Deputy Commissioner Wassing, Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript 663; Mr Harris, Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, Transcript 664; NTT.509.001.0082; BCA.003.001.0003; EPA.500.001.0002.

[1879] See, eg Deputy Commissioner Wassing, Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript 663.

[1880] See, eg The Office of the Royal Commission, Background Paper: Land management – hazard reduction: a literature review < https://naturaldisaster.royalcommission.gov.au/publications/background-paper-land-management-hazard-reduction-literature-review>

[1881] See, eg, Professor Bradstock, Centre for Environmental Risk Management of Bushfire, University of Wollongong, Transcript 626; Professor Bowman, University of Tasmania, Transcript 625, 627, 629; Mr Webb, Victorian Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Transcript 683, 689.

[1882] See, eg Professor Bradstock, Centre for Environmental Risk Management of Bushfire, University of Wollongong, Transcript 638; PJS.500.001.0001.

[1883] Professor Sharples, PJS.500.001.0001.

[1884] PJS.500.001.0001

[1885] See, eg Mr Hardman, Forest Fire Management Victoria, Transcript 661; Mr Slijepcevic, Country Fire Authority Victoria, Transcript 661; Mr Loughlin, South Australian Country Fire Service, Transcript 696.

[1886] Mr Loughlin, South Australian Country Fire Service, Transcript; 696.

[1887] See, eg Professor Bradstock, Centre for Environmental Risk Management of Bushfire, University of Wollongong, Transcript 626; Professor Bowman, University of Tasmania, Transcript 625, 627, 629, 636; Mr Slijepcevic, Country Fire Authority Victoria, Transcript 674; Mr Loughlin, South Australian Country Fire Service, Transcript 701;
Mr De Haan, Western Australian Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Transcript 736;
Mr Webb, Victorian Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Transcript 683;
Deputy Commissioner Wassing, Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript 700.

[1888] Professor Sharples, PJS.500.001.0001.

[1889] See, eg Dr Kitchin, ACT NoWaste, Transcript 204; Mr Cooper, ACT Parks and Conservations Service, Transcript 710, 732; Mr Vea, Northern Territory Department of Tourism, Sport and Culture, Transcript 725; Commissioner Whelan, ACT Emergency Services Agency, Transcript 727; Mr Walker, ACT Environment, Planning and Sustainable Development Directorate, Transcript 206; Mr Webb, Victorian Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Transcript 682; Commissioner Rogers, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 706; Mr De Haan, Western Australian Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Transcript 711, 722.

[1890] See, eg EPA.500.001.0002_UR; NTT.509.001.0082; Commissioner Rogers, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 730; Mr Cooper, ACT Parks and Conservations Service, Transcript 728.

[1891] See, eg Mr Walker, ACT Environment, Planning and Sustainable Development Directorate, Transcript 204;
Mr Loughlin, South Australian Country Fire Service, Transcript 672; Deputy Commissioner Wassing, Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript 699; CLQ.001.001.0650; Mr Baulch, Bushfires NT, Transcript 721, 737; NTT.509.001.0082; Commissioner Rogers, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 706.

[1892] NTT.509.001.0082.

[1893] Commissioner Rogers, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript, 730.

[1894] CLQ.001.001.0650.

[1895] Commissioner Rogers, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 730.

[1896] See, eg EMV.0005.0001.0068; Mr Hardman, Forest Fire Management Victoria, Transcript 651; Mr Webb, Victorian Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Transcript 682; Deputy Commissioner Wassing, Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript 663; Mr Loughlin, South Australian Country Fire Service, Transcript 654.

[1897] See, eg Mr Walker, ACT Environment, Planning and Sustainable Development Directorate, Transcript 203;
Deputy Commissioner Wassing, Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript 649; Mr Hardman, Forest Fire Management Victoria, Transcript 650; Mr Webb, Victorian Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Transcript 681; Mr Slijepcevic, Country Fire Authority Victoria, Transcript 653; Mr Harris, Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, Transcript 664; Commissioner Rogers, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 706;
Commissioner Whelan, ACT Emergency Services Agency, Transcript 709; Mr De Haan, Western Australian Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Transcript 710.

[1898] See, eg Deputy Commissioner Wassing, Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript 650; Mr Walker, ACT Environment, Planning and Sustainable Development Directorate, Transcript 203; Commissioner Whelan, ACT Emergency Services Agency, Transcript 709; Commissioner Rogers, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 706.

[1899] See, eg Mr Williams, South Australian Department for Environment and Water, Transcript 685.

[1900] Mr De Haan, Western Australian Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Transcript 711.

[1901] Ms Stephens, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Transcript 754.

[1902] Mr Harris, Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, Transcript 687.

[1903] Mr Loughlin, South Australian Country Fire Service, Transcript 659.

[1904] See, eg Mr Harris, Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, Transcript 644; Mr Baulch, Bushfires NT, Transcript 713; Mr De Haan, Western Australian Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Transcript 711.

[1905] See, eg Mr Williams, South Australian Department for Environment and Water, Transcript 694.

[1906] Mr Cooper, ACT Parks and Conservations Service, Transcript 710.

[1907] FSA.068.001.0014.

[1908] NSW.009.001.0001.

[1909] Forestry SA, FSA.068.001.035

[1910] Mr Hardman, Forest Fire Management Victoria, Transcript 657; EMV.0005.0001.0068.

[1911] CLQ.001.001.0650.

[1912] See, eg, FSA.068.001.0014.

[1913] See, eg, NTT.509.001.0082.

[1914] See, eg, CLQ.001.001.0650 ESA.509.001.0002_UR; SWA.006.001.0001.

[1915] See, eg, CLQ.001.001.0650.

[1916] ESA.509.001.0002_UR.

[1917] See, eg. SSA.632.001.0081; SWA.006.001.0001.

[1918] NSW.009.001.0001.

[1919] NSW.009.001.0001; NSW Local Land Services ‘Supporting our Neighbours – Public Land Boundary Fencing Program’ <https://www.lls.nsw.gov.au/what-we-do/our-major-projects/supporting-our-neighbours-public-land-boundary-fencing-program>.

[1920] Ms Ryan, Hancock Victorian Plantations, Transcript 783.

[1921] EMV.0005.0001.0068.

[1922] See, eg FEC.360.001.0001 – Michael Keelty et al, Independent Review into South Australia’s 2019-20 Bushfire Season, (Government of South Australia, June 2020).

[1923] See, eg DELW.507.001.0001; PLH.500.001.0001; CLQ.001.001.0047; ENN.501.001.0001; EPA.502.001.0001; SAF.399.001.0001.

[1924] See, eg SAF.399.001.0001; DELW.507.001.0001; PLH.500.001.0001; CLQ.001.001.0047; ENN.501.001.0001; EPA.502.001.0001; DPC.501.001.0002; RFS.501.001.0003

[1925] Ms Campbell, Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Transcript 615

[1926] NND.600.00500.02; NND.600.00500.01; Image from Willinga Park, NND.600.0050.0002.02.

[1927] Ms Campbell, Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Transcript 615

[1928] See, eg FEC.360.001.0001.

[1929] See, eg Ms Ryan, Hancock Victorian Plantations, Transcript 783

[1930] See, eg FSA.068.001.0014; FEC.360.001.0001; NSW.900.001.0003.

[1931] FSA.068.001.0014.

[1932] FEC.360.001.0001.

[1933] Figure from NSW Rural Fire Service, 10/50 vegetation clearing, <https://www.rfs.nsw.gov.au/plan-and-prepare/1050-vegetation-clearing>.

[1934] See, eg Mr Webb, Victorian Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Transcript 681; Ms Stephens, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Transcript’ 742; Mr Cooper, ACT Parks and Conservations Service, Transcript 728; Mr De Haan, Western Australian Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Transcript 743; Mr Vea, Northern Territory Department of Tourism, Sport and Culture, Transcript 746.

[1935] Mr Cooper, ACT Parks and Conservations Service, Transcript 728.

[1936] See, eg Mr Webb, Victorian Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Transcript’ 681; Mr De Haan, Western Australian Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Transcript 735, 743;
Commissioner Whelan, ACT Emergency Services Agency, Transcript 740; Mr Cooper, ACT Parks and Conservations Service, Transcript 741; Ms Stephens, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Transcript 743; Mr De Haan, Western Australian Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Transcript 743; Mr Cooper, ACT Parks and Conservations Service, Transcript 741; Mr Slijepcevic, Country Fire Authority Victoria, Transcript 674; EMV.0005.0001.0068; Mr Baulch, Bushfires NT, Transcript 737; Mr Vea, Northern Territory Department of Tourism, Sport and Culture, Transcript 738.

[1937] Mr De Haan, Western Australian Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Transcript 743.

[1938] Mr Baulch, Bushfires NT, Transcript 745.

[1939] See, eg ENN.500.001.0032; EMV.0005.0001.0068; Mr Webb, Victorian Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Transcript 702; Mr Slijepcevic, Country Fire Authority Victoria, Transcript 675; Dr Metcalfe, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Transcript 558; EPA.500.001.0002.

[1940] See, eg Associate Professor Tolhurst, University of Melbourne, Transcript 628; Professor Bradstock, Centre for Environmental Risk Management of Bushfire, University of Wollongong, Transcript 636.

[1941] See, eg Mr Cameron OAM, Emergency Management Australia, Transcript 442; AFC.512.001.0001; EMV.0005.0001.0068; AWE.9001.0001.0001.

[1942] AFC.512.001.0001.

[1943] EMV.0005.0001.0068.

[1944] See, eg CLQ.003.001.0001

[1945] NSW.006.001.0001 – NSW Government, Final Report of the NSW Bushfire Inquiry, (31 July 2020).

[1946] AFC.512.001.0001; CSI.500.001.0001. This built on earlier work by the CSIRO.

[1947] AFC.512.001.0001.

[1948] AFC.512.001.0001.

[1949] AFC.512.001.0001.

[1950] AFC.512.001.0001.

Chapter 18 Indigenous land and fire management

[1951] See, eg R Hill et al, Indigenous Land Management in Australia: Extent, Scope, Diversity, Barriers and Success Factors (CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences); Mr Eckford-Williamson, The Australian National University, Transcript 798

[1952] See, eg NND.001.00988.01. EMV.0005.0001.0068; Mr Eckford-Williamson, The Australian National University, Transcript 798; NND.001.01091; NND.001.01281; DELW.0001.0001.0586; EMV.0005.0001.0068; NND.001.01091.

[1953] See, eg NND.300.008.0005.

[1954] See, eg Mr Eckford-Williamson, The Australian National University, Transcript 798; Mr Ansell, Warddeken Land Management Ltd, Transcript 833; ESQ.002.001.0012

[1955] Mr Ansell, Warddeken Land Management Ltd, Transcript 833; SWA.007.001.0002

[1956] SWA.007.001.0002.

[1958] See, eg ENN.500.001.0032; NND.001.01091

[1959] See, eg Mr Eckford-Williamson, The Australian National University, Transcript 797; NND.001.01091

[1960] Dr Neale, Deakin University, Transcript 810

[1961] CSI.900.002.0003.

[1962] See, eg VIC.900.001.0001.

[1963] See eg, ENN.500.001.0032.

[1964] See, eg Mr Garstone, Kimberley Land Council, Transcript 832.

[1965] See, eg NND.001.01281; ENN.500.001.0032.

[1966] See, eg ENN.500.001.0032.

[1967] See, eg A National Framework to Report on the Benefits of Indigenous Cultural Fire Management - Final Report (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, 2018).

[1968] See, eg N McNamara, ‘Australian Aboriginal Land Management: Constraints or Opportunities?’ (2017) 21 James Cook University Law Review.

[1969] See, eg J Ansell et al, ‘Contemporary Aboriginal Savanna Burning Projects in Arnhem Land: A Regional Description and Analysis of the Fire Management Aspirations of Traditional Owners’ (2019) 29 International Journal of Wildland Fire; ESQ.002.001.0012

[1970] See, eg MOR.500.001.0001; NND.001.00969

[1971] See ,eg VTO.500.001.0001; Mr Steffensen, Firesticks Alliance Indigenous Corporation, Transcript 834

[1972] Ms Stephens, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Transcript 818.

[1973] See, eg NND.001.01281; L Kelly and L Brotons, ‘Using Fire to Promote Biodiversity’ (2017) 355(6331) Science; Rebecca Bird et al, ‘Aboriginal Burning Promotes Fine-Scale Pyrodiversity and Native Predators in Australia’s Western Desert’ (2018) 219 Biological Conservation; DELW.0001.0001.0586; NND.001.01281; J Fitzsimons et al, ‘Insights into the Biodiversity and Social Benchmarking Components of the Northern Australian Fire Management and Carbon Abatement Programmes’ (2012) 13(1) Ecological Management and Restoration; NND.001.01091.

[1974] See, eg EMV.0005.0001.0068; ESQ.002.001.0012

[1975] See, eg EMV.0005.0001.0068; ESA.500.001.0074; ESQ.002.001.0012; ICI.500.001.0008; EPA.500.001.0002.

[1976] See, eg ESQ.002.001.0012; EMV.0005.0001.0068; TCS.500.001.0002.

[1977] ACT.900.001.0001.

[1978] ESQ.002.001.0012

[1979] EMV.0005.0001.0068.

[1980] ICI.500.001.0008.

[1981] SWA.007.001.0002.

[1982] CLQ.003.001.0001.

[1983] NND.001.00928.

[1984] Mr Steffensen, Firesticks Alliance Indigenous Corporation, Transcript 834-835.

[1985] See, eg Mr Miller, Gunaikurnai Land and Waters Aboriginal Corporation, Transcript 843.

[1986] See, eg Dr Neale, Deakin University, Transcript 809; NND.001.01281; NND.001.00969.01

[1987] DELW.0001.0001.0586 CSIRO, ‘Our Knowledge, Our Way Guidelines: Downloadable Resources’ <https://www.csiro.au/en/Research/LWF/Areas/Pathways/Sustainable-Indigen…;.

[1988] See, eg ESQ.002.001.0012.

[1989] See, eg DELW.0001.0001.0586. NND.001.00928. Mr Eckford-Williamson, The Australian National University, Transcript 798; NND.001.01091.

[1990] Mr Steffensen, Firesticks Alliance Indigenous Corporation, Transcript 834.

[1991] DELW.0001.0001.0586; CSIRO, ‘Our Knowledge, Our Way Guidelines: Downloadable Resources’ <https://www.csiro.au/en/Research/LWF/Areas/Pathways/Sustainable-Indigen…;.

[1992] Figure from DELW.0001.0001.0586 CSIRO, ‘Our Knowledge, Our Way Guidelines: Downloadable Resources’ <https://www.csiro.au/en/Research/LWF/Areas/Pathways/Sustainable-Indigen…;.

[1993] See, eg IAA.500.002.0006; ESA.500.001.0074; ESQ.002.001.0012; ENN.500.001.0032.

[1994] See, eg ENN.500.001.0032; NND.001.01309; ESQ.002.001.0012; TCS.500.001.0002.

[1995] See, eg Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, ‘Indigenous Protected Areas’ https://www.environment.gov.au/land/indigenous-protected-areas; ESQ.002.001.0012.

[1996] See, eg EMV.0005.0001.0068.

[1997] ESQ.002.001.0012.

[1998] Mr Garstone, Kimberley Land Council, Transcript 832.

[1999] NSW Bushfire Enquiry

[2000] EMV.0005.0001.0068.

[2001] ESA.500.001.0074.

[2002] Mr Rose, Gunditj Mirring Traditional Owners Corporation, Transcript 272.

[2003] DELW.0001.0001.0586; EMV.0005.0001.0068.

[2004] See, eg Forest Fire Management Group, National Bushfire Management: Policy Statement for Forests and Rangelands (Council of Australian Governments, 2014) <https://knowledge.aidr.org.au/media/4935/nationalbushfiremanagementpoli…; ; Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council, National Position on Prescribed Burning (AFAC, 2016) <https://knowledge.aidr.org.au/media/4869/national-position-on-prescribed-burning.pdf>.

[2005] See, eg Dr Neale, Deakin University, Transcript 811; NND.001.01281.

[2006] See, eg C Burgess et al, ‘Healthy County, Healthy People: The Relationship between Indigenous Health Status and “Caring for Country”’(2009) 190(10) Medical Journal of Australia; D Green and D Martin, ‘Maintaining the Healthy Country-Healthy People Nexus through Sociocultural and Environmental Transformations: Challenges for the Wik Aboriginal People of Aurukun, Australia’ (2016) 48(3) Taylor & Francis Online; Mr Garstone, Kimberley Land Council, Transcript 832; NND.001.00928.

[2007] See, eg Mr Garstone, Kimberley Land Council, Transcript 832; Mr Munuggullumurr Yibarbuk, Warddeken Land Management Ltd, Transcript 833; Mr Steffensen, Firesticks Alliance Indigenous Corporation, Transcript 834.

[2008] Mr Munuggullumurr Yibarbuk, Warddeken Land Management Ltd, Transcript 833.

[2009] Ms Cavanagh, University of Wollongong, Transcript 807.

[2010] See, eg NND.001.01309; ESQ.002.001.0012; ENN.500.001.0032; TCS.500.001.0002; NND.001.00928.

[2011] See, eg ENN.500.001.0032; NND.001.01309; ESQ.002.001.0012; Ansell et al; TCS.500.001.0002.

[2012] Mr Miller, Gunaikurnai Land and Waters Aboriginal Corporation, Transcript; Mr Mullet, Gunaikurnai Land and Waters Aboriginal Corporation, Transcript; Gunaikurnai Land and Waters Aboriginal Corporation, NND.001.01091

Chapter 19 Land-use planning and building regulation

[2013] PMC.9005.0001.0001.

[2014] RCN.001.001.3091 – CE Holmes, Queensland Floods Commission of Inquiry - Final Report Volume 1 (March 2012).

[2015] Stuart Ellis, Peter Kanowski and Whelan Rob, National Inquiry on Bushfire Mitigation and Management (Council of Australian Governments, 31 March 2004) <https://www.dfes.wa.gov.au/publications/GeneralReports/FESA_Report-NationalInquiryonBushfireMitigationandManagement.pdf>; RCN.001.001.2304 – Productivity Commission, Natural Disaster Funding Arrangements, (Inquiry Report No 74, 17 December 2014).

[2016] RCN.001.001.2304; RCN.900.054.0013 – Planning Institute Australia and Attorney-General’s Department, ‘National Land Use Planning Guidelines for Disaster Resilient Communities’.

[2017] Professor March, Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute and Melbourne School of Design, University of Melbourne, Transcript 1623.

[2018] Construction of public infrastructure is treated differently – see Chapter 9: Essential services.

[2019] ACB.500.001.0001.

[2020] ACB.500.001.0001.

[2021] ACB.500.001.0001.

[2022] STA.501.001.0001.

[2023] National Association of Steel-Framed Housing Inc,‘NASH Standards’. <https://www.nash.asn.au/nash/publications/nash-standards&gt;

[2024] NND.600.00192; NND.001.00825; NND.001.01389; NND.001.01141; Ms Cotter, Bushfire Building Council, Transcript 1650; Professor March, Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute and Melbourne School of Design, University of Melbourne, Transcript 1630.

[2025] NND.001.01141.

[2026] NSW.006.001.0001 – NSW Government, Final Report of the NSW Bushfire Inquiry, (31 July 2020); EMQ.001.001.0807.

[2027] NND.001.01087; EGC.502.001.0044; ESC.500.001.0001; NND.001.00825; NND.001.00789; NND.001.01360.02 – Menzies Research Centre, ‘Strengthening Resilience: Managing National Disasters after the 2019-20 Bushfire Season,’ (April 2020).

[2028] Mr Crosweller, Ethical Intelligence, Transcript 2891.

[2029] Council of Australian Governments, ‘Meeting of the Council of Australian Governments: Communique’ (13 March 2020).

[2030] Department of Home Affairs, National Disaster Risk Reduction Framework (Department of Home Affairs, 2018).

[2031] NND.001.01368.

[2032] Figure from Cross Dependency Initiative, NND.001.01368.

[2033] ICA.501.001.0001.

[2034] BBC.500.001.0002.

[2035] GEO.502.001.0002.

[2036] GEO.502.001.0002.

[2037] NND.300.004.0003; Mr Hamden, Cross Dependency Initiative, Transcript 1661–1662. See also Chapter 4: Supporting better decisions.

[2038] RCN.001.001.2304; SAS.500.001.0003; EMV.0005.0001.0068; NND.001.01062; SHP.500.001.0002; PMC.0003.0001.0001; GEO.502.001.0002; NND.001.01360.02; AWE.9001.0001.0001; EPA.500.001.1491.

[2039] PMC.0003.0001.0001.

[2040] Professor March, Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute and Melbourne School of Design, University of Melbourne, Transcript 1626; Mr Bell, Australian Institute of Architects, Transcript 1647; NND.001.01013; NND.001.01360.02.

[2041] See Chapter 4: Supporting better decisions.

[2042] Mr Crosweller, Ethical Intelligence, Transcript 2696; GEO.502.001.0002; SHP.500.001.0002; RCN.001.001.2304; PMC.0003.0001.0001; RCN.900.054.0013.

[2043] CTH.900.001.0001.

[2044] RCN.001.001.2304.

[2045] RCN.001.001.2304; RCN.900.005.0425; EPA.500.001.1491.

[2046] RCN.001.001.1256 – Productivity Commission, Barriers to Effective Climate Change Adaptation, (Inquiry Report No 59, 19 September 2012); TAS.900.001.0003; SSA.900.001.0003.

[2047] RCN.900.005.0425; RCN.001.001.2304; RCN.900.034.0001 – Australia-New Zealand Emergency Management Committee, ‘Australian Disaster Preparedness Framework: A Guideline to Develop the Capabilities Required to Manage Severe to Catastrophic Disasters’ (October 2018); BNH.500.001.0001.

[2048] Inspector-General Emergency Management Queensland, Standard for Disaster Management in Queensland (June 2019) <https://www.igem.qld.gov.au/sites/default/files/2019-12/NEW%20Standard%…;

[2049] Inspector-General Emergency Management Victoria, ‘Evaluation and Review’ (21 September 2020) <https://www.igem.vic.gov.au/our-work/evaluation-and-review&gt;; Victorian Government, ‘Safer Together Approach’ (2020). <https://www.safertogether.vic.gov.au/background&gt;.

[2050] VIC.0009.0001.0001.

[2051] NND.300.005.0035; NND.300.005.0033; NND.300.005.0001; NND.300.008.0002; NND.300.007.0020; NND.300.008.0012; NSW.900.001.0003; CLQ.003.001.0001; SSA.900.001.0003; TAS.900.001.0003; VIC.900.001.0001; SWA.007.001.0002; ACT.900.001.0001; NTT.900.001.0003.

[2052] SWA.007.001.0002. Which in its view requires a whole of government response addressing matters such as planning, water supply, electricity supply, infrastructure, telecommunications, road and transport networks and emergency management.

[2053] NND.300.005.0035; NND.300.005.0007.

[2054] NSW.900.001.0003.

[2055] Commissioner Rogers, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 1682; Mr Lesh, NT Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Logistics, Transcript 1712; Mr Kaucz, ACT Environment, Planning and Sustainable Development Directorate, Transcript 1711; Ms McGowan, WA Department of Planning, Lands and Heritage, Transcript 1711; Ms Allen, SA Department of Planning, Transport and Infrastructure, Transcript 1712; Mr Lyngcoln, Victorian Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Transcript 1677.

[2056] Ms Cotter, Bushfire Building Council, Transcript 1643; NND.001.01360.02.

[2057] HAF.9004.0001.0001; HAF.9004.0003.0001.

[2058] NND.600.00277; ESC.500.001.0001; BMC.500.001.0003; EGC.502.001.0044; NND.001.01241; NND.600.00192; EMV.0005.0001.0068; NND.001.01264.

[2059] in this example: wood piled against the house, vegetation allowed to grow too close, and an extension that is not compliant with the relevant building standard

[2060] CLQ.003.001.0001.

[2061] NND.001.01087; EGC.502.001.0044; ESC.500.001.0001; NND.001.01360.02; NND.001.00825; NND.001.01354 33; NND.001.00789.

[2062] NND.300.004.0003. This may also raise concerns, because as noted in Chapter 4: Supporting better decisions, national consistency can come with both benefits, such as creating a shared understanding, enabling comparability, and reducing duplication, and costs such as those in aligning data and systems.

[2063] RCN.001.005.8779 – Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Northern Australia Insurance Inquiry: Second Interim Report (November 2019).

[2064] NND.001.00789; NND.001.01087; NND.001.01368; BBC.500.001.0002.

[2065] Three recent Commonwealth examples are: Australian Government Behavioural Economics Team, ‘Effective Use of SMS: Improving Government Confirmation Processes’ (December 2017); Australian Government Behavioural Economics Team, ‘Effective Use of SMS: Timely Reminders to Report on Time’ (December 2017); Australian Government Behavioural Economics Team, ‘Energy Labels That Make Cents: Testing Energy Rating Labels on Appliances Sold Online’ (March 2018).

[2066] RCN.001.001.2304; 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission, Final Report (2010) <http://royalcommission.vic.gov.au/Commission-Reports/Final-Report>; RCN.900.005.0425; EPA.500.001.1491.

[2067] TAS.900.001.0003; VIC.900.001.0001; NSW.900.001.0003; ACT.900.001.0001; CLQ.003.001.0001; NTT.900.001.0003; SWA.007.001.0002; SSA.900.001.0003. NSW emphasised that such a proposal must not undermine state responsibilities.

[2068] LGA.500.001.0001; FES.003.001.0003; QFS.002.001.0012; NND.600.00214; NND.600.00248; NND.001.01141; Mr Crosweller, Ethical Intelligence, Transcript 1688; RCN.001.001.2304; RCN.001.001.1920; 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission, Final Report (2010) <http://royalcommission.vic.gov.au/Commission-Reports/Final-Report>.

[2069] RCN.001.001.2304; NND.001.01013; Dr Finkel, Australia’s Chief Scientist, Transcript 2316; NND.600.00192; PMC.0003.0001.0001.

[2070] PMC.0003.0001.0001.

[2071] ICA.501.001.0001; Mr Sullivan, Insurance Council of Australia, Transcript 1665.

[2072] Jandowae Floods 11 February 2020, Queensland Fire and Emergency Services.

[2073] NND.001.00825; ICA.501.001.0001; 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission, Final Report (2010) <http://royalcommission.vic.gov.au/Commission-Reports/Final-Report>; ACB.500.001.0001.

[2074] See Chapter 17: Public and private land management.

[2075] ICA.501.001.0001; BBC.500.001.0002.

[2076] NND.600.00285.

[2077] NND.600.00285; BBC.500.001.0002.

[2078] ACB.500.001.0001.

[2079] BBC.500.001.0002; ICA.501.001.0001; NND.001.00354; NND.001.00825; NND.001.01087.

[2080] NND.001.00825; NND.600.00285; RCN.001.001.2304.

[2081] Mr Lyngcoln, Victorian Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Transcript 1676; Commissioner Rogers, NSW Rural Fire Service, Transcript 1680; Mr Doss, Queensland Treasury, Transcript 1686; Mr Lesh, NT Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Logistics, Transcript 1708; Mr Kaucz, ACT Environment, Planning and Sustainable Development Directorate, Transcript 1707; Ms McGowan, WA Department of Planning, Lands and Heritage, Transcript 1710; Ms Allen, SA Department of Planning, Transport and Infrastructure, Transcript 1709.

[2082] CLQ.001.001.0047; RFS.502.001.0001; SAF.399.001.0001; DELW.507.001.0001.

[2083] NND.300.005.0033; NND.001.01087; NND.300.007.0046; NND.600.00192; NND.300.005.0035.

[2084] RCN.001.005.8779.

[2085] SDQ.001.001.0001.

[2086] CLQ.001.001.0071.

[2087] NND.001.00354; NND.001.01190; RCN.001.005.8779; NND.600.00192. See Chapter 20: Insurance for more information about insurance.

[2088] NND.001.00825.

[2089] NND.001.00825; RCN.001.005.8779.

[2090] ICA.501.001.0001.

[2091] RCN.001.005.8779; RCN.001.001.2304.

[2092] ICA.501.001.0001; Mr Sullivan, Insurance Council of Australia, Transcript 1668. Improvements to risk data and information would naturally support greater recognition of risk mitigation.

[2093] NND.300.005.0035; NND.001.01360.02.

[2094] RCN.001.005.8779; NSW.006.001.0001. ACCC recommendations 14 (on public mitigation works), 27 (on clearly stated mitigation discounts), and 28 (on information on mitigation works that could reduce premiums) in the second interim report relate to this matter. Recommendation 28 in the Final Report of the NSW Bushfire Inquiry encouraged the NSW government to work with the ICA to create incentives for property owners to undertake mitigation.

[2095] NND.300.005.0017; NND.300.005.0033; NND.300.007.0046; NND.300.005.0035; TAS.900.001.0003; VIC.900.001.0001; NSW.900.001.0003; ACT.900.001.0001; CLQ.003.001.0001; NTT.900.001.0003; SWA.007.001.0002; SSA.900.001.0003.

[2096] Professor March, Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute and Melbourne School of Design, University of Melbourne, Transcript 1630.

[2097] NND.001.00789; NND.001.01255; NND.001.01360; NND.600.00192; NND.001.00866; NND.001.00135; BMC.500.001.0003; NND.600.00269; NND.001.00824.01 15; ‘Property Council of Australia, NND.001.01141; Professor March, Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute and Melbourne School of Design, University of Melbourne, Transcript 4.

[2098] EPA.502.001.0001; DELW.507.001.0001; CLQ.001.001.0047; RFS.502.001.0001; ENN.501.001.0001; SAF.399.001.0001; PLH.500.001.0001; Ms Allen, SA Department of Planning, Transport and Infrastructure, Transcript 1704–1705; Ms McGowan, WA Department of Planning, Lands and Heritage, Transcript 1706; Mr Kaucz, ACT Environment, Planning and Sustainable Development Directorate, Transcript 1707; Mr Lesh, NT Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Logistics, Transcript 1708; Mr Lyngcoln, Victorian Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Transcript 1672; Mr Doss, Queensland Treasury, Transcript 1685.

[2099] NND.001.00135; NND.001.00824.01; NND.001.01255; NND.600.00269; NND.001.00866; NND.001.01141; NND.001.01154.

[2100] LJO.500.001.0001.

[2101] NND.600.00192.

[2102] NND.600.00189; NND.001.01360.02; NND.001.00354; BMC.500.001.0003; NND.600.00277; NND.001.00866; NND.600.00146; STA.501.001.0001; NND.001.01141; NND.600.00381; NND.001.01013.

[2103] NND.600.00192; NND.001.00825; NND.001.01360.02; NND.001.00157.01; Ms Erhart, Local Government Association of Queensland, Transcript 872–873; Ms Dench, Wollondilly Shire Council, Transcript 1074; NND.001.01354; NND.001.01141; NND.001.01255; NND.001.01368; Ms Ryland, Planning Institute of Australia, Transcript 1647; Professor March, Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute and Melbourne School of Design, University of Melbourne, Transcript 1647.

[2104] RCN.900.055.0001 – Commonwealth Department of Transport and Regional Services, Natural Disasters in Australia: Reforming Mitigation, Relief and Recovery Arrangements, (Council of Australian Governments, 2004) (‘Natural Disasters in Australia’); RCN.001.001.1920; RCN.900.034.0092; EPA.500.001.1491; RCN.001.001.1177; RCN.001.001.2304; RCN.900.034.0092.

[2105] Stuart Ellis, Peter Kanowski and Whelan Rob, National Inquiry on Bushfire Mitigation and Management (Council of Australian Governments, 31 March 2004) <https://www.dfes.wa.gov.au/publications/GeneralReports/FESA_Report-NationalInquiryonBushfireMitigationandManagement.pdf>.

[2106] NND.600.00381; VIC.900.001.0001; NSW.900.001.0003; ACT.900.001.0001; CLQ.003.001.0001; NTT.900.001.0003; SWA.007.001.0002; SSA.900.001.0003.

[2107] NND.001.01013.

[2108] CSI.508.001.0027.

[2109] Ms Cotter, Bushfire Building Council, Transcript 1649–1650; Mr Bell, Australian Institute of Architects, Transcript 1644; Mr Stingemore, Standards Australia, Transcript 1669; SHP.500.001.0002; NND.001.01013; NND.001.00825; SDQ.001.001.0001.

[2110] Mr Leonard, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Transcript 2398; NND.001.00729.

[2111] STA.501.001.0001.

[2112] Mr Leonard, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Transcript 2401. See Chapter 4: Supporting better decisions.

[2113] RYC.500.001.0001; NND.001.01255.

[2114] STA.501.001.0001; ACB.500.001.0001; EWS.500.001.0003.

[2115] CSI.900.002.0003.

[2116] Mr Leonard, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Transcript 2401–2402.

[2117] CSI.900.002.0003 900.

[2118] Mr Stingemore, Standards Australia, Transcript 1657.

[2119] NND.001.00824.01; NND.600.00285; Mr Bell, Australian Institute of Architects, Transcript 1644; NND.001.00729; NND.001.01354; NND.001.00945.

[2120] NND.600.00285; PTS.030.006.1352 17; NND.001.01354.

[2121] NND.001.01354; PTS.030.006.1352.

[2122] Mr Bell, Australian Institute of Architects, Transcript 1644.

[2123] Mr Bell, Australian Institute of Architects, Transcript 1643–1644.

[2125] ACB.500.001.0001.

[2126] ACB.500.001.0001; PTS.030.006.0003.

[2127] Mr Sullivan, Insurance Council of Australia, Transcript 1669. See also NND.001.00354; NND.600.00192; NND.001.00825; NND.001.00227; NND.001.01013.

[2128] NND.600.00192.

[2129] ACB.500.001.0001.

[2130] ACB.500.001.0001.

[2131] NND.600.00192.

[2132] NND.600.00285; NND.001.00275; NND.001.00825.

[2133] NND.001.00263.

[2134] STA.501.001.0001; ACB.500.001.0001.

[2135] STA.501.001.0001; ACB.500.001.0001.

[2136] ACB.500.001.0001; STA.501.001.0001.

[2137] RCN.001.001.1177.

[2138] RCN.001.005.8779.

[2139] TAS.900.001.0003; VIC.900.001.0001; NSW.900.001.0003; ACT.900.001.0001; CLQ.003.001.0001; NTT.900.001.0003; SWA.007.001.0002; SSA.900.001.0003; NND.300.005.0035. While South Australia gave in principle support, it also stated that it considers that the extent of the work currently underway to review AS 3959:2018 is sufficient

[2140] SSA.900.001.0003; CLQ.003.001.0001.

Chapter 20 Insurance

[2141] NND.001.00354; RCN.001.005.8779.

[2142] RCN.900.074.0217.

[2143] The Treasury, Background Paper 20: Natural Disaster Insurance, Background Paper (2018) <https://financialservices.royalcommission.gov.au/publications/Documents/natural-disaster-insurance-background-paper-20.pdf>.

[2144] Insurance Council of Australia, ‘$3.85 Billion Already Paid in Natural Disaster Claims as Insurers Overcome Pandemic Upheaval’ (Media Release, 27 August 2020), <https://www.insurancecouncil.com.au/media_release/plain/588&gt;.

[2145] RCN.900.074.0217.

[2146] IAG.500.001.0001.

[2147] The Treasury, Background Paper 20: Natural Disaster Insurance, Background Paper (2018) <https://financialservices.royalcommission.gov.au/publications/Documents/natural-disaster-insurance-background-paper-20.pdf>.

[2148] HAF.8001.0001.0049.

[2149] Insurance premiums are the cost paid by the insured to the insurer for an insurance policy. They are set to reflect risk, other costs and considerations insurers take into account, and can be increased by taxes including duties and levies.

[2150] NND.001.01087; NND.001.00324; CAL.500.001.0001; NND.600.00192; RCN.001.005.8779; NND.001.01360.02. Dr Cainey, Energy Networks Australia, Transcript 1354.

[2151] NND.600.00192.

[2152] NSW.507.001.0001.

[2153] NSW.507.001.0001.

[2154] Productivity Commission, Natural Disaster Funding Arrangements (Inquiry Report No 74, 17 December 2014) <https://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/disaster-funding/report>.

[2155] Royal Commission into Misconduct in the Banking, Superannuation and Financial Services Industry, Final Report (2019) <https://treasury.gov.au/publication/p2019-fsrc-final-report>.

[2156] The Treasury, Restoring Trust in Australia’s Financial System, Financial Services Royal Commission Implementation Roadmap (2019) <https://treasury.gov.au/sites/default/files/2019-08/399667_Implementation_Roadmap_final.pdf>.

[2157] ACCC, Northern Australia Insurance Inquiry: First Interim Report (November 2018) <https://www.accc.gov.au/focus-areas/inquiries-ongoing/northern-australia-insurance-inquiry/first-interim-report>.

[2158] RCN.001.005.8779.

[2159] ACCC, Northern Australia Insurance Inquiry: First Interim Report (November 2018) <https://www.accc.gov.au/focus-areas/inquiries-ongoing/northern-australia-insurance-inquiry/first-interim-report>; RCN.001.005.8779.

[2160] RCN.900.074.0223.

[2161] TRE.9001.0001.0001.

[2162] Ms Douglas, Community Witness, Transcript 2269.

[2163] RCN.001.005.8779.

[2164] CAL.500.001.0001; NND.001.01087; NND.600.00342.02.

[2165] CAL.500.001.0001; NND.001.01087; NND.600.00342.02.

[2166] CAL.500.001.0001; NND.001.01087.

[2167] ICA.500.001.0001; NND.001.00825; NND.001.00354; CAL.500.001.0001; RCN.001.005.8779; RCN.900.074.0217; NND.001.01141; IAG.500.001.0001.

[2168] NND.600.00192 25; NND.001.01379; NND.600.00342.02.

[2169] SHP.500.001.0002; LEP.500.001.0013; Productivity Commission, Natural Disaster Funding Arrangements (Inquiry Report No 74, 17 December 2014) <https://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/disaster-funding/report&gt;; Mr Sullivan, Insurance Council of Australia, Transcript 1664; RCN.001.001.1715_E.

[2170] RCN.001.005.8779.

[2171] Mr Sullivan, Insurance Council of Australia, Transcript 1658; LEP.500.001.0013; RCN.900.074.0217.

[2172] IAG.500.001.0001; SHP.500.001.0002; LEP.500.001.0013.

[2173] NND.001.00354; NND.001.01090; NND.600.00192; RCN.001.005.8779.

[2174] RCN.001.005.8779; RCN.001.001.2199; NND.001.01013; NND.001.01141.

[2175] NND.600.00192.

[2176] NND.001.01087; CAL.500.001.0001; NND.600.00259; Mr Price, Australian Financial Complaints Authority, Transcript 131; ICA.501.001.0001.

[2177] RCN.900.077.0001 – Justin Malbon and Harman Oppewal, (In)Effective Disclosure: An Experimental Study of Consumers Purchasing Home Contents Insurance (Monash University, September 2018).

[2178] RCN.900.074.0223; CAL.500.001.0001; FCA.500.001.0001; NND.001.01087; RCN.001.005.8779.

[2179] CAL.500.001.0001; FCA.500.001.0001; NND.001.01087; RCN.001.005.8779.

[2180] CAL.500.001.0001; FCA.500.001.0001; NND.001.01087.

[2181] The Treasury, Background Paper 20: Natural Disaster Insurance, Background Paper (2018) <https://financialservices.royalcommission.gov.au/publications/Documents…;; RCN.900.074.0223; NND.001.01087.

[2182] ICA.501.001.0001; NND.001.01087; CAL.500.001.0001; NND.600.00259; Mr Price, Australian Financial Complaints Authority, Transcript 131.

[2183] NND.001.00789; NND.001.01087; NND.001.01368; BBC.500.001.0002.

[2184] NND.600.00275.

[2185] FCA.500.001.0001; NND.001.01087.

[2186] FCA.500.001.0001.

[2187] NND.300.006.0142.

[2188] Royal Commission into Misconduct in the Banking, Superannuation and Financial Services Industry, Final Report (2019) <https://treasury.gov.au/publication/p2019-fsrc-final-report&gt;.

[2189] The Hon Josh Frydenberg MP, Treasurer, ‘Update on the Implementation of the Banking, Superannuation and Financial Services Royal Commission’ (Media Release, 8 May 2020) <https://ministers.treasury.gov.au/ministers/josh-frydenberg-2018/media-…;; Department of the Treasury, Financial Sector Reform (Hayne Royal Commission Response-Protecting Consumers (2020 Measures)) Bill 2020: Exposure Draft Explanatory Materials.

[2190] Mr Price, Australian Financial Complaints Authority, Transcript 129–130.

[2191] NND.300.005.0017; NND.300.007.0046; NND.600.00275; Ms Evans, Legal Aid NSW, Transcript 2240–2241.

[2192] The Treasury, Australia’s Future Tax System, Report to the Treasurer (2009) <https://treasury.gov.au/review/the-australias-future-tax-system-review/final-report>; RCN.001.005.8779; Productivity Commission, Natural Disaster Funding Arrangements (Inquiry Report No 74, 17 December 2014) <https://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/disaster-funding/report>; NSW Government, NSW Review of Federal Financial Relations, Draft report (July 2020) <https://www.treasury.nsw.gov.au/sites/default/files/2020-06/FFR%20Review%20Draft%20Report%20.pdf>.

[2193] ICA.500.001.0001.

[2194] ACT Revenue Office, ‘Tax Reform’ (11 October 2017) <https://www.revenue.act.gov.au/tax-reform&gt;.

[2195] NND.600.00192.

[2196] Table from Insurance Australia Group, NND.600.00192.

[2197] NND.001.00825; ICA.500.001.0001; NND.001.00324.

[2198] NSW Government, NSW Review of Federal Financial Relations, Draft report (July 2020) <https://www.treasury.nsw.gov.au/sites/default/files/2020-06/FFR%20Review%20Draft%20Report%20.pdf>.

[2199] ACCC, Northern Australia Insurance Inquiry: First Interim Report (November 2018) <https://www.accc.gov.au/focus-areas/inquiries-ongoing/northern-australia-insurance-inquiry/first-interim-report>; RCN.001.005.8779.

[2200] Productivity Commission, Natural Disaster Funding Arrangements (Inquiry Report No 74, 17 December 2014) <https://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/disaster-funding/report>.

[2201] The Treasury, Australia’s Future Tax System, Report to the Treasurer (2009) <https://treasury.gov.au/review/the-australias-future-tax-system-review/…;;.

[2202] 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission, Final Report (2010) <http://royalcommission.vic.gov.au/Commission-Reports/Final-Report>.

[2203] NSW.900.001.0003; CLQ.003.001.0001; SSA.900.001.0003; TAS.900.001.0003; VIC.900.001.0001; SWA.007.001.0002; ACT.900.001.0001; NTT.900.001.0003 001.

[2204] NND.600.00275; NND.001.00825; NND.001.00135; NND.001.01153; NND.001.01286.

[2205] FCA.500.001.0001; NND.001.00825.

[2206] NND.001.0082529.

[2207] NND.300.007.0053; NND.300.005.0033; NND.300.005.0017; ACT.900.001.0001; NSW.900.001.0003; CLQ.003.001.0001; SSA.900.001.0003; TAS.900.001.0003; VIC.900.001.0001; SWA.007.001.0002. Western Australia told us it did not support such a proposal at this stage, pending the finding of a Working Group it has already established to consider matters including this issue. South Australia indicated its support would depend upon funding arrangements with the Australian Government being agreed in advance.

[2208] NND.300.007.0053.

[2209] NND.300.005.0017.

Chapter 21 Coordinating relief and recovery

[2210] Ms Giles, Community Witness, Transcript 1778

[2211] NND.001.01013.05.

[2212] Ms Hargreaves, Community Witness, Transcript 12; RCN.500.001.1874.

[2213] United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, “Terminology: Recovery.” <https://www.undrr.org/terminology/recovery>

[2214] NND.001.00433.

[2215] NND.001.00408.01.

[2216] PMC.8001.0001.0362.

[2217] Figure developed by the Office of the Royal Commission into National Natural Disaster Arrangements.

[2218] Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, Australian Disaster Resilience Handbook 2: Community Recovery, 2018, <https://knowledge.aidr.org.au/media/5634/community-recovery-handbook.pdf>.

[2219] PMC.502.001.0299.

[2220] NSW.503.001.0058; EMV.0015.0001.0001; CLQ.001.001.0071; FES.007.001.0002; SSA.468.056.0001; TAS.500.001.0452; NTT.500.001.0060.

[2221] PMC.8001.0001.0362; LGA.500.001.0001; LGN.500.001.0038.

[2222] Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, Australian Disaster Resilience Handbook 2: Community Recovery, 2018, <https://knowledge.aidr.org.au/media/5634/community-recovery-handbook.pdf>.

[2223] EGC.502.001.0044; LGN.500.001.0038.

[2224] LGN.500.001.0038.

[2225] Bushfire History Project contribution, Robert Newnham, Walwa, Victoria.

[2226] ESC.503.001.0001; ESC.503.001.0005.

[2227] Bushfire History Project contribution, Jennifer Pearson, Bingie, NSW.

[2228] ESC.501.001.0005.

[2229] Image from Eurobodalla Shire Council (Youth Services), ESC.503.001.0005.

[2230] EMV.0015.0001.0001; TAS.500.001.0001.

[2231] HAF.9002.0001.0002.

[2232] HAF.0003.0001.0734.

[2233] HAF.8001.0001.0001.

[2234] FIN.9001.0001.0002.

[2235] PMC.502.001.0299.

[2236] VDP.500.001.0001; ARC.500.001.0001; TSA.501.001.0001.

[2237] BUC.500.002.0026.

[2238] Australian Red Cross, Our Response to the Bushfires, 24 January 2020, <https://www.redcross.org.au/news-and-media/news/bushfire-response-24-jan-2020>

[2239] BUC.500.001.0001; BUC.500.002.0026.

[2240] Images from the Business Council of Australia, BUC.500.001.0001 and BUC.500.002.0026.

[2241] LGA.501.001.0001.

[2242] Mr Beresford-Wylie, Australian Local Government Association, Transcript 1111.

[2243] NND.800.001.00020; NND.800.001.00037.01.

[2244] NND.800.001.00021; NND.800.200.00033.

[2245] Mr Florence, Indigo Shire Council, Transcript 1057; Ms Pagan, Towong Shire Council, Transcript 1056 and 1058; NND.800.001.00024.

[2246] Mr Ierino, Indigo Shire Council, Transcript 1063.

[2247] Ms Dench, Wollondilly Shire Council, Transcript 1075.

[2248] Ms Lake, Municipal Association of Victoria, Transcript 1124 and 1130; Ms Kwan, Local Government NSW, Transcript 1128.

[2249] Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, Australian Disaster Resilience Handbook 2: Community Recovery, 2018, <https://knowledge.aidr.org.au/media/5634/community-recovery-handbook.pdf>

[2250] HAF.8001.0001.0073; HAF.9002.0001.0002.

[2251] HAF.8001.0001.0001.

[2252] HAF.8001.0001.0001.

[2253] PMC.502.001.0299.

[2254] ADC.500.001.0945

[2255] Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, Australian Disaster Resilience Handbook 2: Community Recovery, 2018, <https://knowledge.aidr.org.au/media/5634/community-recovery-handbook.pdf>

[2256] ACT.500.001.0001; CLQ.001.001.0071.

[2257] CJN.002.001.0603.

[2258] VPD.500.001.0001.

[2259] EMV.0015.0001.0001; NSW.001.001.0001.

[2260] BVC.500.001.0001.

[2261] SRC.500.001.0001; NND.800.200.00024.

[2262] LCC.500.001.0010; BMC.503.001.0002.

[2263] ESC.501.001.0002.

[2264] Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, Australian Disaster Resilience Handbook 2: Community Recovery, 2018, <https://knowledge.aidr.org.au/media/5634/community-recovery-handbook.pdf>

[2265] PMC.502.001.0299.

[2266] EMV.0015.0001.0001.

[2267] Bushfire History Project contribution, Cindy Blackall, Colo Heights, NSW.

[2268] AGD.9001.0001.0001.

[2269] RCN.900.108.0001 – Mullins, Bradshaw, and Pearce, Australian Bushfire and Climate Plan: Final Report of the National Bushfire and Climate Summit 2020.

[2270] NND.001.01379.01.

[2271] NND.001.01379.01.

[2272] NND.600.00203.

[2273] NND.600.00203.

[2274] NND.600.00320.01.

[2275] RCN.900.149.0001.

[2276] NND.600.00320.01.

[2277] Bushfire History Project contribution, Robert Newham, Walwa, Victoria.

[2278] Ms Dench, Wollondilly Shire Council, Transcript 1077; TSA.501.001.0001.

[2279] Mr Magnussen, Southern Downs Regional Council, Transcript 1077–78.

[2280] RCN.900.150.0001.

[2281] NND.001.00408.01.

[2282] Michelle Brown, Plea for people to stop donating goods directly to ‘overwhelmed’ fire-affected communities, 7 January 2020, <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-07/unsolicited-donations-spark-problems-in-nsw-fire-affected-areas/11848180>

[2283] Alex Murray, Andrews Asks the Public to Donate Cash to Bushfire Appeals, Not Food and Clothing, 5 January 2020, <https://www.news.com.au/national/andrews-asks-the-public-to-donate-cash-to-bushfire-appeals-not-food-and-clothing/video/3e9f1d70dd3629dd9f1ac635321ea13c>

[2284] FON.500.001.0001.

[2285] RCN.900.150.0001; FON.500.001.0001.

[2286] GIV.500.001.0001.

[2287] RCN.900.150.0001.

[2288] GIV.500.001.0001; FON.500.001.0001.

[2289] GIV.500.001.0001.

[2290] ACT.500.001.0001.

[2291] QRA.002.001.0003.

[2292] SSA.468.056.0001.

[2293] GIV.500.001.0001; FON.500.001.0001.

[2294] ARC.501.001.0001 – Mr Clement, Australian Red Cross.

[2295] WIR.501.001.0001.

[2296] TSA.501.001.0001.

[2297] VDP.500.002.0001.

[2298] DSS.9001.0001.0001.

[2299] David Crowe and Rob Harris, Research Reveals Concerns with Charities over Bushfire Appeals, 4 February 2020, <https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/research-reveals-concerns-with-charities-over-bushfire-appeals-20200203-p53xcx#:~:text=Focus%20group%20work%20by%20research,slow%20to%20distribute%20the%20money.&text=%22They%20were%20anxious%20that%20those,funds%2C%22%20the%20company%20said>; Julia Holman, Charities Collecting Bushfire Donations Facing Criticism, 23 January 2020, <https://www.abc.net.au/radio/programs/pm/charities-collecting-bushfire-donations-facing-criticism/11894886>; Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission, Bushfires Generosity Will Not Be Betrayed by Charities, 29 January 2020, <https://www.acnc.gov.au/media/news/bushfires-generosity-will-not-be-betrayed-charities>; Luke Henriques-Gomes, Australian Red Cross Defends Spending 10% of Bushfire Donations on Office Costs, 24 January 2020, <https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/jan/24/australian-red-cross-defends-spending-10-of-bushfire-donations-on-office-costs>

[2301] PMC.8001.0001.0297 – Mr Colvin APM OAM, National Bushfire Recovery Agency.

[2302] NND.001.00311.

[2303] Australian Red Cross, Australian Bushfires Report: January-June 2020, <https://www.redcross.org.au/getmedia/9fe279c7-94af-48e5-b10a-2c3b15f812…;

[2304] Mr Clement, Australian Red Cross, Evidence to Royal Commission, Hearing on 26 May 2020, Transcript 151.

[2305] ARC.500.001.0001.

[2306] ACC.500.001.0001.

[2307] RRR.500.001.0009.

[2308] Department of the Treasury, Strengthening for Purpose: Australian Charities and Not-for-Profits Commission - Legislation Review 2018, August 2018, <https://treasury.gov.au/publication/p2018-t318031>

[2309] ARC.500.001.0001.

[2310] NSW Rural Fire Service & Brigades Donations Fund; Application of Macdonald & Or [2020] NSWSC 604

[2311] NND.001.00827.01.

[2312] TRE.9001.0001.0001.

[2313] TRE.9001.0001.0001.

[2314] TRE.9001.0001.0001.

[2315] NND.300.006.0114.

[2316] Department of the Treasury, Strengthening for Purpose: Australian Charities and Not-for-Profits Commission - Legislation Review 2018, August 2018, <https://treasury.gov.au/publication/p2018-t318031>

[2317] NND.600.00202.

[2318] NND.001.00827; Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Bushfires and Scams, 6 January 2020, <https://www.accc.gov.au/update/bushfires-and-scams>

[2319] Emma Elsworthy, Hundreds of Bushfire Donation Scams Circulating - How to Tell If You’ve Been Duped, 8 February 2020, <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-02-07/australia-fires-sees-spike-in-fraudster-behaviour/11923174>

[2320] Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, ACCC Warns of Possible Bushfire Charity Scams, 9 February 2009, <https://www.accc.gov.au/media-release/accc-warns-of-possible-bushfire-charity-scams>

[2321] NND.001.00827.01.

[2322] NND.600.00202.02.

[2323] SSA.468.056.0001; CLQ.001.001.0071.

[2324] NND.300.006.0115.

[2325] SSA.468.001.0257; NND.001.00038; NND.001.00218; NND.001.00233.

[2326] NND.001.00776; NND.001.01366.

[2327] Image from National Bushfire Recovery Agency attributed to Sean Davey <https://www.bushfirerecovery.gov.au/sites/default/files/photo-gallery/20200110001441406317.jpg>.

[2328] RCN.900.112.0859 – Australia-New Zealand Emergency Management Committee, Spontaneous Volunteer Strategy: Coordination of Volunteer Effort in the Immediate Post Disaster Stage.

[2329] Resilience NSW, Community Recovery Toolkit: Planning for Spontaneous Volunteers, <https://www.emergency.nsw.gov.au/Documents/toolkit/Community-Recovery-Toolkit-Spontaneous-Volunteers.pdf>

[2330] SSA.468.001.0257.

[2331] NND.001.01261.

[2332] CLQ.001.001.0071.

[2333] NND.001.01261.01.

[2334] NSW.001.001.0001.

[2335] NND.001.01261.

[2336] NND.001.00776; NND.001.01261.

[2337] RedR Australia is an international humanitarian response agency that selects, trains and deploys technical specialists. RedR Australia has partnered with the Australian Government’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade to manage the Australia Assists Program.

[2338] RRA.500.001.0001.

[2339] NND.001.01366.01; NND.001.01261.01.

[2340] NND.001.01366.01; NND.001.00776.

[2341] NND.001.01261.

[2342] NSW.001.001.0001.

[2343] NND.001.00776; NND.001.01261.

[2344] NND.300.006.0114.

[2345] CLQ.001.001.0071; NND.001.01261.

[2346] National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster, About Us, 2020, <https://www.nvoad.org/about-us/>

[2347] HAF.0003.0001.0001.

[2348] The SRRG consists of a representative from each of state and territory governments, the Australian Government Department of Human Services, Emergency Management Australia, and the Australian Red Cross, as well as a representative from New Zealand.

[2349] Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, Social Recovery Reference Group, <https://knowledge.aidr.org.au/resources/social-recovery-reference-group/>

[2350] HAF.0009.0001.0214.

[2351] HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2352] PMC.0002.0001.0047.

[2353] PMC.0002.0001.0003.

[2354] PMC.8001.0001.0297 – Mr Colvin APM OAM, National Bushfire Recovery Agency.

[2355] FON.500.001.0001.

[2356] NND.300.008.0013.

[2357] NND.300.008.0018.

[2358] NSW.001.001.0001.

[2359] HAF.8001.0001.0049.

[2360] RCN.900.034.0001.

[2361] HAF.0003.0001.0519.

[2362] RCN.900.034.0092.

[2363] SSA.900.001.0003.

[2364] RCN.900.034.0033.

[2365] SSA.468.056.0001; HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2366] HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2367] SSA.468.056.0001.

[2368] SSA.468.056.0001; NTT.500.001.0060.

[2369] DHHS.0001.0001.0460; NTT.500.001.0060.

[2370] HAF.8001.0001.0001.

[2371] DHHS.0001.0001.0460.

[2372] SSA.468.005.0036.

[2373] ACT.500.001.0001.

[2374] Mr Miezis, Bushfire Recovery Victoria, Transcript 1841–42.

[2375] HAF.0009.0001.0214; HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2376] FES.007.001.0002.

[2377] Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, Australian Disaster Resilience Handbook 2: Community Recovery, 2018, <https://knowledge.aidr.org.au/media/5634/community-recovery-handbook.pdf>

[2378] SSA.632.001.0012.

[2379] SWA.006.001.0001.

[2380] CLQ.001.001.0650; NTT.509.001.0033.

[2381] NTT.509.001.0033.

[2382] TAS.507.001.0403.

[2383] SSA.632.001.0012; CLQ.001.001.0650.

[2384] SSA.632.001.0012.

[2385] NND.800.001.00024; LGC.500.001.0001.

[2386] Image from ABC News attributed to Ian Cutmore (12 July 2020) <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-07-12/stranded-foreigners-rebuilding-bushfire-ravaged-communities/12445898>.

Chapter 22 Delivery of recovery services and financial assistance

[2387] NND.001.01013.05.

[2388] Productivity Commission, Natural Disaster Funding, Volume 1, 2015, <https://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/disaster-funding/report/disaster-funding-volume1.pdf>.

[2389] Images from: Bushfire History Project contribution, Robert Newham, Walwa, Victoria (left); NND.600.00279 (top right); Manning River Times, Mobile Service Centre to Assist with Bushfire Recovery on Mid Coast, 19 November 2019, <https://www.manningrivertimes.com.au/story/6498970/mobile-service-centre-to-assist-with-bushfire-recovery-on-mid-coast/> (bottom right).

[2390] NND.001.01013.06.

[2391] NND.001.01013.06.

[2392] Productivity Commission, Natural Disaster Funding, Volume 1, 2015, <https://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/disaster-funding/report/disaster-funding-volume1.pdf>.

[2393] RCN.900.034.0092.

[2394] DMC.001.001.0921.

[2395] HAF.8001.0001.0049.

[2396] DMC.001.001.0921

[2397] CLQ.001.001.0071; LGA.500.001.0001; LGN.500.001.0038.

[2398] QRA.001.001.2389; QRA.001.001.2337.

[2399] EMV.0003.0003.0910.

[2400] Commissioner Fitzsimmons, Resilience NSW, Transcript 1980.

[2401] Figure developed by the Office of the Royal Commission into National Natural Disaster Arrangements. See Appendix 24: Recovery supports.

[2402] SER.9001.0001.0001.

[2403] SER.500.001.0002 – Ms Lees, Services Australia.

[2404] SER.9001.0001.0001.

[2405] PMC.9005.0001.0001.

[2406] SER.500.001.0002 – Ms Lees, Services Australia.

[2407] SER.9001.0001.0001; DSS.9001.0001.0001.

[2408] SSA.632.001.0005.

[2409] ARC.500.001.0001; ARC.501.001.0001 – Mr Clement, Australian Red Cross; TSA.500.001.0017; TSA.501.001.0001; VDP.500.001.0001.

[2410] TSA.500.001.0017.

[2411] DSS.9001.0001.0001.

[2412] ARC.500.001.0001; ARC.501.001.0001 – Mr Clement, Australian Red Cross.

[2413] BUC.500.002.0026.

[2414] BUC.500.002.0001.

[2415] Mr Miezis, Bushfire Recovery Victoria, Transcript, 1841–42; SER.500.001.0002 – Ms Lees, Services Australia; PMC.502.001.0299.

[2416] NND.001.01379.01; PMC.502.001.0299. We heard of the difficulties in navigating the recovery processes of Australia, state and territory government agencies. For example, Mr and Ms Giles told us: We had to jump hoops like you wouldn’t believe. (RCN.711.000.0001 and RCN.500.001.2594 Mr and Ms Giles, Community Witness, Transcript 10).

[2417] TOW.500.001.0001.

[2418] SER.9001.0001.0001.

[2419] NTT.507.001.0001.

[2420] TSA.500.001.0017.

[2421] FES.007.001.0002; CLQ.001.001.0071.

[2422] NND.300.005.0007; NND.300.005.0042; NND.300.006.0134.

[2423] Western Australia supports the current review of the DRFA but argued that its actions in supporting recovery should not be constrained by arrangements that may not be appropriate in other jurisdictions but which are necessary in the Western Australian context.

[2424] SSA.468.056.0001; HAF.9002.0001.0002.

[2425] Ms Westacott, Business Council of Australia, Transcript 2216.

[2426] Ms Robb, Community Witness, Transcript 1894.

[2427] Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, Australian Disaster Resilience Handbook 2: Community Recovery, 2018, <https://knowledge.aidr.org.au/media/5634/community-recovery-handbook.pdf>.

[2428] NSW.001.001.0001; EMV.0015.0001.0001; CLQ.001.001.0071; FES.007.001.0002; SSA.468.056.0001; TAS.500.001.0452; ACT.500.001.0001; NTT.500.001.0060.

[2429] VDP.500.001.0001.

[2430] TSA.501.001.0001.

[2431] SHC.502.001.0002.

[2432] Mr Cashmore, Community Witness, Transcript 21; RCN.500.001.2188–.

[2433] VDP.500.001.0001.

[2434] NND.001.00782; NND.001.00324.01.

[2435] NND.001.00782.

[2436] SHC.503.001.0002.

[2437] SER.9002.0001.0002.

[2438] NND.600.00330; NND.001.00324.01.

[2439] SER.9002.0001.0002; SER.9002.0001.0022.

[2440] NND.001.01256.

[2441] PMC.8001.0001.0297 – Mr Colvin APM OAM, National Bushfire Recovery Agency; ARC.500.001.0001.

[2442] NND.001.00873.01.

[2443] NSW.001.001.0001; SSA.468.056.0001; EMV.0015.0001.0001.

[2444] NSW.001.001.0001.

[2445] ARC.500.001.0001; VDP.500.001.0001.

[2446] ARC.500.001.0001.

[2447] NND.001.01286.

[2448] Mr Weinert, Community Witness, Transcript 1164; WIE.500.001.0001 – Mr Weinert.

[2449] NND.001.00363.

[2450] RCN.900.112.0859.

[2451] RCN.900.112.0859.

[2452] Mr Weinert, Community Witness, Transcript 1160.

[2453] Image from the Canberra Times attributed to Dion Georgopoulos (8 January 2020) <https://www.canberratimes.com.au/story/6570478/how-cobargo-pulled-together-after-a-firestorm-on-two-fronts/>

[2454] NND.001.00666

[2455] Ms Robb, Community Witness, Transcript 1893; Ms Giles, Community Witness, Transcript, 1780; NND.001.00161; TOW.500.001.0001 – Ms Townsend.

[2456] Captain Glover, The Salvation Army, Transcript 2249; NSW.006.001.0001.

[2457] NND.800.001.00036.

[2458] ESC.500.001.0001.

[2459] VIC.0009.0001.0001.

[2460] AGD.9001.0001.0001.

[2461] AGD.9001.0001.0001.

[2462] NSW.001.001.0001; Mr Di Pietro, Shoalhaven City Council, Transcript 1107; ARC.500.001.0001; Mr Leplastrier, Insurance Australia Group, Transcript, 78; VDP.500.001.0001; FES.007.001.0002.

[2463] Mr Colvin, National Bushfire Recovery Agency, Transcript 527.

[2464] Mr Pearce, Victorian Inspector-General for Emergency Management, Transcript, 1578–79; NND.800.001.00038.

[2465] AGD.9001.0001.0001.

[2466] AGD.9001.0001.0001.

[2467] AGD.9001.0001.0001.

[2468] Ms Lees, Services Australia, Transcript, 503; Mr Colvin, National Bushfire Recovery Agency, Transcript 527.

[2469] Mr Colvin, National Bushfire Recovery Agency, Transcript 527.

[2470] AGD.9001.0001.0001.

[2471] AGD.9001.0001.0001.

[2472] AGD.9001.0001.0001.

[2473] Captain Glover, The Salvation Army, Transcript 2261–62; Mr O’Connor, St Vincent de Paul Society, Transcript 2262–63; Mr Clement, Australian Red Cross, Transcript 2263.

[2474] AGD.9001.0001.0001.

[2475] PMC.8001.0001.0297 – Mr Colvin APM OAM, National Bushfire Recovery Agency.

[2476] NND.600.00330; NND.001.01379.

[2477] Ms Prendergast, Resilience NSW, Transcript 1934.

[2478] Ms Evans, Legal Aid NSW, Transcript 2240.

[2479] Captain Glover, The Salvation Army, Transcript 2251.

[2480] SSA.468.056.0001; SHC.502.001.0002.

[2481] ARC.500.001.0001.

[2482] Ms Prendergast, Resilience NSW, Transcript 1934, 1953–54; ARC.500.001.0001; NSW.001.001.0001; CLQ.001.001.0071; Captain Glover, The Salvation Army, Transcript 2262.

[2483] PMC.9002.0001.0001.

[2484] The ACT told us that it was likely this was unachievable, and several state and territory governments noted significant potential cost implications, and Tasmania and Victoria suggested that significant work was required at a state level before national coordination would be possible. The Consumer Action Law Centre and Legal Aid noted that it would be important to ensure that the sharing of information did not have adverse consequences for individuals.

[2485] SER.9001.0001.0001.

[2486] DSS.9002.0001.0001.

[2487] DSS.9002.0001.0001.

[2488] HAF.0003.0001.0639.

[2489] Mr Colvin, National Bushfire Recovery Agency, Transcript 2951.

[2490] HAF.0003.0001.0639.

[2491] HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2492] HAF.8001.0001.0001.

[2493] HAF.0003.0001.0639.

[2494] SSA.468.001.0539.

[2495] HAF.9002.0001.0002.

[2496] HAF.9002.0001.0002.

[2497] HAF.9002.0001.0002.

[2498] HAF.9002.0001.0002.

[2499] PMC.0001.0002.0446.

[2500] HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2501] Images from: ABC News attributed to David Foote (20 January 2020) <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-20/hail-storm-in-canberra-damages-cars-smashes-windows/11882472> (top and bottom right); Photo contribution, Craig Furness, Canberra, ACT (bottom left).

[2502]116 Figure developed by the Office of the Royal Commission into National Natural Disaster Arrangements.

[2503]117 HAF.9003.0002.0001.

[2504]118 HAF.9007.0002.0001.

[2505]119 Data from HAF.9003.0002.0001.2019‑2020 estimates are as of February 2020. Complete estimates for 2019‑2020 are not yet available as state and territory governments have 24 months to submit claims under the DRFA to the Australian Government.

[2506]120 DUN.500.001.0029.

[2507]121 FES.005.001.0147.

[2508]122 Mr Cronstedt AFSM, Western Australian Department of Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript 1871–72.

[2509]123 Mr Fitchat, Shire of Dundas, Transcript 1046

[2510]124 ACT.500.001.0001.

[2511]125 BNT.501.001.0065.

[2512]126 SSA.468.056.0001.

[2513]127 LGC.500.001.0020.

[2514]128 HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2515]129 QRA.001.001.2853.

[2516]130 EMV.0015.0001.0001.

[2517]131 PMC.9002.0001.0001.

[2518]132 HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2519]133 Ms Pagan, Towong Shire Council, Transcript 1061.

[2520]134 ACT.500.001.0001.

[2521]135 ACT.500.001.0001; HAF.9002.0001.0002.

[2523]137 NSW.009.002.0043.

[2524]138 VIC.0011.0001.0042.

[2525]139 CLQ.001.001.0699.

[2526]140 SWA.006.001.0004.

[2527]141 SSA.632.001.0005.

[2528]142 TAS.507.001.0181.

[2529]143 ESA.510.001.0033.

[2530]144 NTT.507.001.0001.

[2531]145 We heard from Western Australia and Queensland that they do not support an approach which would seek to ensure consistency of recovery support across different states, territories and local government areas. However, such an approach was supported by the Australian Government and the other state and territory governments. We note that the ACT, South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria also noted similar issues, while giving their in principle support for greater consistency.

[2532]146 SWA.007.001.0002; CLQ.003.001.0001.

[2533]147 PMC.9002.0001.0001.

[2534]148 HAF.0003.0001.0639.

[2535]149 Mr Miezis, Bushfire Recovery Victoria, Transcript 1839

[2536]150 HAF.9002.0001.0002.

[2537]151 NND.800.001.00044.

[2538]152 NND.800.001.00043; SHC.502.001.0002.

[2539]153 CLQ.001.001.0071.

[2540]154 EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[2541]155 PMC.502.001.0299.

[2542]156 PMC.9002.0001.0001; HAF.9003.0001.0001. South Australia, Queensland and Western Australia emphasised that it is important for the states to nonetheless retain flexibility to tailor recovery programs.

[2543]157 HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2544]158 PMC.9002.0001.0001.

[2545]159 AGD.9001.0001.0001, .0017.

[2546]160 Anonymous quote, Hayley Gleeson, ‘A new bushfire crisis is emerging as experts brace for an imminent surge in domestic violence’ Australian Broadcasting Corporation (online, 24 February 2020) <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-02-24/domestic-violence-anticipated-spike-bushfires-crisis/11980112>.

[2547]161 Debra Frances Parkinson, ‘Women’s Experience of Violence in the Aftermath of the Black Saturday Bushfires’ (PhD Thesis, Monash University, 2017).

[2548]162 NND.001.01013.05.

[2549]163 MDH.500.001.0093; MDH.500.001.0001.

[2550]164 Dr Debra Parkinson, as quoted in Hayley Gleeson, ‘A new bushfire crisis is emerging as experts brace for an imminent surge in domestic violence’ Australian Broadcasting Corporation (online, 24 February 2020) <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-02-24/domestic-violence-anticipated-spike-bushfires-crisis/11980112>.

[2551]165 NND.001.01204.01.

[2552]166 NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, Domestic violence statistics for NSW (2019) <https://www.bocsar.nsw.gov.au/Pages/bocsar_pages/Domestic-Violence.aspx>

[2553]167 MDH.500.001.0093; Debra Parkinson and Claire Zara, “The hidden disaster: domestic violence in the aftermath of natural disasters’ (2013) 28(2) Australian Journal of Emergency Management 28-35.

[2554]168 NND.001.01379.01; NND.001.01377.01.

[2555]169 Debra Frances Parkinson, ‘Women’s Experience of Violence in the Aftermath of the Black Saturday Bushfires’ (PhD Thesis, Monash University, 2017).

[2556]170 Debra Parkinson and Claire Zara, “The hidden disaster: domestic violence in the aftermath of natural disasters’ (2013) 28(2) Australian Journal of Emergency Management 28-35.; NND.001.01173.01.

[2557]171 DMC.001.001.0921.

[2558]172 HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2559]173 HAF.9003.0001.0001; Mr Beckett, Local Government Association of Queensland, Transcript 881.

[2560]174 HAF.0003.0001.0639.

[2561]175 HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2562]176 HAF.8003.0001.0001 – Mr Cameron OAM, Department of Home Affairs.

[2563]177 EMV.0015.0001.0001.

[2564]178 HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2565]179 HAF.8001.0001.0001.

[2566]180 CLQ.001.001.0071.

[2567]181 Mr Beckett, Local Government Association of Queensland, Transcript 881.

[2568]182 TAS.500.001.0452.

[2569]183 CLQ.001.001.0071.

[2570]184 LGA.500.001.0001.

[2571]185 HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2572]186 LGA.501.001.0001; Mr Darragh, Northern Territory Department of the Chief Minister, Transcript 1813; Mr Presland, Resilience NSW and Office of Emergency Management, Transcript 1940.

[2573]187 Mr Presland, Resilience NSW and Office of Emergency Management, Transcript 1940.

[2574]188 TAS.500.001.0452.

[2575]189 HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2576]190 Mr Colvin, National Bushfire Recovery Agency, Transcript 2951.

[2577]191 HAF.0003.0001.0639.

[2578]192 HAF.0003.0001.0639.

[2579]193 PMC.502.001.0299.

[2580]194 HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2581]195 HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2582]196 Mr Colvin, National Bushfire Recovery Agency, Transcript 522.

[2583]197 HAF.9002.0001.0002.

[2584]198 HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2585]199 Mr Limkin, Tasmanian Department of Premier and Cabinet, Transcript 1765.

[2586]200 HAF.9003.0001.0021.

[2587]201 CLQ.001.001.0071.

[2588]202 Ms Pagan, Towong Shire Council, Transcript 1061.

[2589]203 HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2590]204 EMV.0007.0001.0001.

[2591]205 HAF.9003.0003.0001.

[2592]206 SSA.468.056.0001.

[2593]207 Mr Presland, Resilience NSW and Office of Emergency Management, Transcript 1939; Mr Limkin, Tasmanian Department of Premier and Cabinet, Transcript 1758; NND.800.001.00048; NND.800.200.00025.01; EMV.0007.0001.0001; TAS.500.001.0452.

[2594]208 Australian National Audit Office, Administration of the Natural Disaster Relief and Recovery Arrangements by Emergency Management Australia (30 April 2015) <https://www.anao.gov.au/work/performance-audit/administration-natural-d…;.

[2595]209 LGA.501.001.0007.

[2596]210 HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2597]211 HAF.9003.0001.0001.

[2598]212 NND.600.00381; ACT.500.001.0001.

[2599]213 HAF.0003.0001.0639.

[2600]214 HAF.8003.0001.0001 – Mr Cameron OAM, Department of Home Affairs; HAF.0003.0001.0639.

[2601]215 HAF.8003.0001.0001 – Mr Cameron OAM, Department of Home Affairs.

[2602]216 Bushfire History Project contribution, Kirstin Pearce, Buchan Victoria.

Chapter 23 National research and emerging technology

[2603] RCN.900.078.0001.

[2605] National Environmental Science Programme, Earth Systems and Climate Change Hub, <http://nespclimate.com.au/&gt;.

[2606] GEO.502.001.0002.

[2607] GEO.502.001.0002.

[2608] ANT.9001.0001.0001.

[2609] Mr Murfett, Australian Space Agency, Transcript 2322.

[2610] IND.0003.0001.0001.

[2611] Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources, Cooperative research centres, <https://www.industry.gov.au/funding-and-incentives/cooperative-research…;.

[2612] RCN.900.078.0001.

[2613] Professor Koronios, SmartSat CRC, Transcript 2330; SCR.500.001.0001.

[2614] Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, Hazards culture and Indigenous communities, <https://www.bnhcrc.com.au/research/indigenouscommunities&gt;.

[2615] HAF.8003.0001.0001.

[2616] HAF.8003.0001.0001.

[2617] HAF.8003.0001.0001.

[2618] RCN.900.078.0001.

[2619] NND.001.01367.01.

[2620] NND.001.01167.

[2621] CSI.508.001.0001.

[2622] Australian Business Roundtable for Disaster Resilience & Safer Communities, <http://australianbusinessroundtable.com.au/&gt;.

[2623] Ibid; ARC.501.001.0031.

[2624] Australian Business Roundtable for Disaster Resilience & Safer Communities, Our Research, <http://australianbusinessroundtable.com.au/our-research&gt;.

[2625] IAG.001.001.0046.

[2626] Mr Leplastrier, Insurance Australia Group, Transcript 54.

[2627] James Cook University Australia, The Cyclone Testing Station, <https://www.jcu.edu.au/cyclone-testing-station&gt;.

[2628] Minderoo Foundation, Reducing Harm Caused by Fire and Flood, <https://www.minderoo.org/fire-and-flood-resilience/&gt;.

[2629] HAF.8001.0001.0001.

[2630] Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience, Centre of Excellence for Prescribed Burning, <https://www.aidr.org.au/programs/centre-of-excellence-for-prescribed-burning/>.

[2631] AID.500.001.0106.

[2632] Mr Ehrlich, Day 27, Transcript Page 2336 and 2337

[2633] Mr McKenna, Day 27, Transcript Page 2342

[2634] ATT.500.001.0001.

[2635] SMT.500.001.0001.

[2636] BFI.501.001.0001; Mr Morris, Bushfire.Io, Transcript 2363.

[2637] BFI.501.001.0001.

[2638] Mr Newman, Red Helmet Technology, Transcript 2360.

[2639] LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a remote sensing method that can generate precise, three-dimensional information about the shape of the Earth and its surface characteristics using light in the form of a pulsed laser.

[2640] HAF.0009.0001.0308.

[2641] HAF.0009.0001.0308. First National Action Plan under the National Disaster Risk Reduction Framework to identify any additional existing research funding programs and initiatives.

[2642] HAF.0009.0001.0308.

[2643] EMV.0005.0001.0068.

[2644] CLQ.003.001.0001.

[2645] SSA.900.001.0003.

Chapter 24 Assurance and accountability

[2646] RCN.900.144.0195 – UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, Accountability in the Context of Disaster Risk Governance (2019) ‘Accountability in disaster risk governance is a cross-cutting and complex governance issue for which each state has the primary responsibility to ensure that the public are safe and aware of risks, and to prevent and reduce disaster risks… This also requires political and legal commitment, public understanding, scientific knowledge, careful development planning, responsible enforcement of policies and legislation, national risk assessment, disaster loss data, people-centered early warning systems, and effective disaster preparedness and response mechanisms.’

[2647] Royal Commission, Background Paper: Australian Inquiries and Reports Concerning Natural Disasters (Royal Commission into National Natural Disaster Arrangements, 15 May 2020).

[2648] Chart produced using a combination of data sources, including from the Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC Disaster Inquiries Database, as well as research by the Commission into previous and concurrent inquiries.

[2649] For example, NATCATDISPLAN states it will be reviewed by the Australian, state and territory governments, in consultation with the Australian Local Government Association, after three years or earlier as agreed. The current version, version 2.2, was published in December 2017.

[2650] HAF.0001.0001.0049.

[2651] HAF.0009.0001.0308.

[2652] Figure from the First National Action Plan to Implement the National Disaster Risk Reduction Framework, HAF.0009.0001.0308.

[2653] HAF.0009.0001.0308

[2654] HAF.9008.0001.0001.

[2655] Commissioner Leach, Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, Transcript 2505.

[2657] Associate Professor Owen, University of Tasmania, Transcript 2675.

[2658] Mr Pearce, Victorian Inspector-General for Emergency Management, Transcript 1548-1612; EMV.0014.0001.0697.

[2659] Mr Dawson, Queensland Inspector-General Emergency Management, Transcript 1548-1612; EMQ.003.001.0034.

[2660] Mr Pearce and Mr Dawson, Transcript 1555.

[2661] Associate Professor Owen, University of Tasmania, Transcript 2676.

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